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as dwelling in human nature over the invisible world, the state of separate spirits, and over death and the grave, so that he removes men out of this life, and consigns their bodies to the grave and corruption, when and as he pleases; he then fixes their souls in happiness or misery with absolute authority; and he will soon raise all their dead bodies, and either receive them into Heaven, or shut them up for ever in hell, as he sees good.” In this sage, there is the state of separate spirits, in which the souls of men are either in happiness or misery, until their dead bodies being raised and united to their souls, they are fixed in the final heaven of happiness and hell of torments.
9. Rev. vi. 8. “And I looked and behold a pale horse; and his name that sat on him was death, and hell (aans) followed with him."
10. Rev. xx. 13. “ Death and Hell (ädns) delivered up the dead that were in them.”
11. Rev. xx. 14. And death and hell (ädns) were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death."
These passages are very bold and sublime personifications. In the first, Hell, the place of departed spirits, follows death, denoting that immediately after the body becomes subject to the dominion of death, Hell or the invisible place receives the soul.
But, as is declared in the 2d passage, death shall deliver up the bodies, and Hell the spirits that were subject to their dominion. And
As is announced in the last verse, Death, as well as Hell, the place of the departed, shall be destroyed, sball be cast into the lake of fire. “ The death which consists
in the separation of the soul and body, and the state of souls intervening between death and judgment shall be no
To the wicked they shall be succeeded by a more terrible death, the damnation of gehenna,” the hell of torments.
The last passage is an incontrovertible evidence, that hell is applied to the place of the departed. If by hell we understand the place of torments; as by the lake of fire, by which the second death is denominated, the hell of torments, is undoubtedly meant; then the personification becomes absolute nonsense- the hell of torments is cast into the hell of torments *.
Dr. DODDRIDGE considers Hell in these passages as denoting the separate state. And Dr. Scott again unequivocally avows its existence. He thus comments on these passages, “The grave and separate state will give up the bodies and souls contained in them.” 6. Then death and hell, the grave and separate state (represented as two persons) will be cast into the lake of fire: that is, they shall subsist no longer to receive the bodies and the souls of men."
The only instance of a personification, equal in boldness and sublimity to that contained in the above passages, is where the Prophet Isaiah represents the departed souls of mighty monarchs, in the place of the departed, as in motion and agitation at the approach of the departed spirit of the King of Babylon.
“ Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming, it stirreth up the dead for thee t."
The above, it is believed, are all the passages in the
* See Dr. Campbell's Prelim. Diss. vi. part ii. 13.
† Isaiah xiv. 9.
New Testament in wbich the English word Hell is found corresponding to aans, Hades, in the original, and denoting the place of the departed.
There are thirteen passages in the New Testament in which the word Hell is found expressed by yeeyva, Ge. henna, in the original, and denoting the place of torment.
summary of this doctrine of a place of departed spirits may be thus exhibited.
As the souls of men are not admitted into Heaven, the place of final happiness ; nor into Hell, the place of final torment; according to the representations of the sacred writings, until the resurrection, and the judgment of the great day; and as the soul, both from reason and Scripture, is not previously in a state of unconsciousness *, it follows, that during this interval she must subsist in a separate state.
As the happiness of Heaven and the misery of Hell, the place of final torment, are represented in Scripture as the happiness or misery of the whole man, of his body united to his soul; and as this union, dissolved by death, is not renewed until the resurrection and judgment of the great day, it follows, that previously to this event, the soul cannot be a subject of the happiness of heaven, or of the misery of the final hell of torment, but must be in a separate state of incomplete, though inconceivably great felicity or woe.
And that there is this place of the departed, denomi
* In the Appendix I have not repeated the arguments in favour of the conscious state of the soul when separated by death from the body, which are succinctly stated in the Address.
nated in allusion to its secret and invisible character, ödns, Hades, or Hell, where in distinct abodes, the souls of the righteous and of the wicked experience inconceivable happiness or misery, expecting the consummation of their felicity or woe, at the day of judgment, is placed beyond doubt by the fact that Christ's human soul was in bell, (hades,) in the place of the departed, and in that part of this place denominated Paradise, in the interval between bis death and his resurrection. For
During this interval his human soul was in some place. Since, independently of every other consideration, it was declared of him, by the Prophet, that "his soul was not to be left in hell."
But his soul during this period could not have been in Heaven; for he did not ascend to Heaven, agreeably to his own declaration, until after his resurrection.
Nor could his soul bave been in the Hell of torment, (an impious supposition,) for he declared as matter of triumph and joy to the penitent thief that after death they should be together in Paradise.
In Paradise then, that region of peace and joy, in Hades the place of the departed, was the human soul of the blessed Jesus in the interval between death and the resurrection.
And where the human soul of Jesus was during this period, there during the same period must be the souls of the human race whose sentence of mortality he sustained, and of whom he was the representative.
This doctrine has not the most remote connection with the papal doctrine of purgatory.
That the celebrated Protestants whose names have been exhibited in support of this doctrine, in the preceding pages, that Campbell, and Doddridge, and Mack. night, Presbyterian Divines ; that Bishops Taylor, Bull, Burnet, Secker, Horsley, Tomline, and other Bishops of the English Church ; that Hammond, and Whitby, and Clarke, and Scott, Clergymen, and Sir Peter King, a distinguished Layman of that Church; that Wesley and Clarke, of the Methodist communion; that Bishops Sea. bury and White, of our own Church; that all these, living in different ages and countries, and of different religious denominations, should have conspired to introduce the papal doctrine of purgatory, will hardly be credited.
The Papal doctrine is, that “ some few have before their death so fully cleared ap their accounts with the Divine Majesty, and washed away all their stains in the blood of the Lamb, as to go straight to Heaven after death ; and that others who die in the guilt of deadly sins, go straight to Hell *.” The doctrine set forth in the preceding pages is, that none go to Heaven, or to Hell, (veyva, gehenna,) until after the day of judgment. In the interval between death and the resurrection, they are in a state of unchangeable happiness or misery in the place of the departed.
The Papal doctrine is that those who do not die perfectly pure and clean, nor yet under the guilt of unrepented deadly sin, go to Purgatory, where they suffer certain indefinable pains, and the pains of material fire;
* The Catholic Christian instructed, p. 176-a book of standard authority among the Roman Catholics, published by one of their distinguished Bishops, the Rt. Rev. Dr. Chaloner.