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a voluntary one, who devotes him or herself to the child's religious instruction, should have some book which lends itself to this branch of education. Such a book will not be found in the ordinary school library.

Now, although this little work can be placed in the hands of the children themselves, I should recommend that where it is used in classes it should be reserved by the teachers as a text-book from which to teach. And to the teachers I venture to address a few hints. (1) As to how a Sabbath class should be conducted. (2) As to how this book should be used.

To begin with: the children should be brightly and intelligently taught; their attention should be arrested from the very beginning; if they get tired and take a dislike to their Sabbath class, the effect will be to make them dislike all religious instruction, even religion itself. The best teaching is demanded for our day schools; why should we not be equally exacting for our Sabbath classes?

The teaching should be very animated, but the time spent in class should be short. The teacher should be well prepared by having a complete knowledge of his subject. Some good maps, especially one of Palestine, should be placed in sight of the pupils, and it would greatly add to the interest of the lesson if it could be illustrated from time to time by any objects to which the teacher may refer. Teaching through the ear should always be supplemented by teaching through the eye. The black-board, when the class is not held on the Sabbath, would often be found useful for the writing down of important words or difficult names, and in some cases it would be well for the pupils to have paper and pencil at hand for taking notes. The children should commit to memory, each week, some text from the Bible,

which they should repeat faultlessly to their teacher, thus storing their minds, not only with words of strength and comfort, but also with some of the finest passages of any existing literature.

The teacher should, if possible, claim the inspiriting aid of instrumental music or song for the class, encouraging the children to learn ennobling words, set to stirring tunes. These can have a good, healthy, moral tone, without being necessarily of a strictly sacred character; indeed, it would be almost impossible to find sacred words in English verse for our children, as we have no suitable hymnal for their use. But there is no reason why they should not also learn to sing both tunefully and expres

.and other Hebrew chants אֲדוֹן עוֹלָם יִגְדַּל sively the

After the children have been cheered by song, the teacher would do well to read some very short chapter or passage from the Bible, questioning the children at the close upon what has been read. This might be followed by another hymn, after which a chapter from this book would find its place in the morning's work. At the end of the reading I would suggest that the teacher should recite the yo, taking due care that the children not only follow, but also understand the meaning of the words.

It is now time that I should give a few suggestions as to how this little book should be used by the teacher.

Out of the thirty-six addresses or chapters that it contains, eleven are entirely concerned with the Jewish holydays or festivals, whilst the remaining twentyfive bear more or less upon some spiritual or moral lesson, generally illustrated by a Bible story or cha


There is no reason why the chapters should be taken. by the teacher in the order that I have given them: the

teacher in this case, as in many others, must be guided by his or her own judgment.

Between the chapters occur short poems, or verses, not actually bearing upon the subject of the addresses, but all suitable for children to commit to memory.

I will now suppose that the teacher is holding the book in her hands, and is about to give a lesson on the chapter entitled:

"An Open Window."

After the first sentence, the teacher will begin by asking the pupils to describe a room; they may, if they like, take their own class-room for an illustration.

They should mention the objects which it contains, and their use. The teacher should ask whether the children have ever heard of houses or rooms without windows. Of course, the reply might be: "Scotch or Irish cabins," which reply would necessitate pointing out Scotland and Ireland on the map. And then some account should be given of the appearance of a cabin, and of the hole in the roof which emits the smoke, as an open window would do in one of our houses. The teacher, in telling the class that we cannot exist without light or air, should be able to give some definition of light and air. He should draw from the children answers as to what gives light; as to what difference there is between sun and moon light; as to the length of daylight in summer and winter; as to the difference of the length of daylight in the extreme north and south, and centre of the globe. He should then direct the children's attention to the mines, where all work is carried on by borrowed light-the light of a lantern or lamp, and where the sunlight cannot penetrate.

A description of a coal mine, and of the part that children take in the work would interest the pupils. The next subject would be factories, and work-rooms,

where the air often becomes vitiated from insufficient ventilation.

The children should throughout give as many examples as they can for themselves, the teacher endeavouring to make them reflect. The lesson should be suggestive rather than merely instructive, great pains being taken to develop the children's reasoning powers, and to quicken their love of information. They should be led to read and search for themselves, and not to rest content with what they are taught in class.

The teacher should never cram or over-load the children's memories; her lesson should always be stimulating and rousing, rather than satisfying.

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We will imagine that the teacher has now arrived at the sentence: I am going to tell you about some other windows. They are invisible ones, but still they exist for the matter of that, as so many invisible things do.” Here he should ask the children to give examples of invisible things, requiring such answers as Hope, Patience, Courage, Faith. Let him dilate upon the meaning of these qualities. Let him be very careful that the children grasp the meaning of the sentence: "There are windows in our own souls.” He should explain how the soul

can be said to have its window, like the room, how it can also, if it will, receive its supply of light and air. In quoting from the Psalms that occur in the address he is reading, he should ask the children to turn to the texts in their Bibles, and then bid one of the elder pupils write the words on the black-board. The children might be encouraged to commit the texts to memory, which would impress the lesson upon their minds. And here I may say that, whenever a passage or text is quoted from the Bible, the children should be told to look it out for themselves, and, should a Scriptural character or

event be mentioned, the teacher should never neglect to question the children about it, drawing out all their knowledge on the subject, and supplementing it with his own.

The teacher, in reading the sentence "the word of God," should ask the children if they can tell him the names of some of the Biblical books. He might then give them as much information as he can about the Bible; it is the history of their ancestors, and contains the finest literature of their race; its laws have become the groundwork of the law of all civilized people; the Commandments are incorporated in almost every creed.

The teacher has now arrived at this question: "Have you ever watched the rippling waters of a stream? have you seen how the surface is stirred ?" Here the children's memories should be well exercised. Have they ever seen the ocean, a river, or lake? Let them describe any piece of water that they know; let them find it on the map. Ask them the names of any rivers mentioned in the Bible. Let them think of any great event which occurs in sacred history in connection with a sea or river, such as the passage of the Red Sea by Moses and the Israelites at the Exodus from Egypt, or the passage of the river Jordan by Joshua and the children of Israel. The teacher is now dilating upon the passage concerning "the Spirit of God." “We can all breathe it," he reads, "provided we can open the windows of our souls wide. But no doubt, for some whose heart and lungs may be weak, accustomed only to the impure air of the dismal chambers of their souls, the strong fresh air, when suddenly the window is flung open, is almost too strong and too fresh."

Here the teacher should make the children understand that those who are accustomed to lead ignoble lives

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