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[Compare D ļā, “chief, that which is in front, Accuracy

of Tzetzes duke, prince."]


proved. 14. “A lion's tail, necessity.

[Compare peh, “to force, to compel, to be

15, 16. “A stag, year; likewise the palm.

[Of the stag meaning "year" I can give no example.

The palm branch ( or renpit

, is the common

word for "year."]
17. "The boy signifies growth.

[Compare g, which is the determinative of words

meaning “youth” and juvenescence.] 18. “The old man, decay.

[Compare tea, the determinative of ABADIA

dant, “ old age.”]

“ The bow, the swift power."
[The Egyptian word for bow is


peț, to run, to face away."] “And others by the thousand. And by means of these characters Homer says this. But I will proceed in another place, if you please, to explain the pronunciation of those characters in Ethiopic fashion, as I have learnt it from Chaeremon."

In another place ? Tzetzes says, “ Moreover, he was not Extract uninitiated into the symbolic Ethiopian characters, the Tzetzes. nature of which we will expound in the proper places. All this demonstrates that Homer was instructed in Egypt," ναι μήν ουδε των Αιθιοπικών συμβολικών γραμμάτων αμύητος γέγονε, περί ών εν τοις οικείους τόπους διδάξομεν οποία είσί, και ταύτα δε τον "Ομηρον εν Αιγύπτω παιδευθήναι napadelkvúovol, and upon this the scholia on Tzetzes say :Περί των Αιθιοπικών γραμμάτων Διόδωρος] μεν επεμνήσθη, και μερικώς είπεν, αλλ' ώσπερ εξ ακοής άλλου μαθών και ουκ

| Hermann, p. 123, 11. 2-29; Bachmann, p. 823, 11. 12–34.

Hermann, p. 17, 11. 21-25; Bachmann, p. 755, 11. 9-12.

ακριβώς αυτός επιστάμενος [ει] καί τινα τούτων κατέλεξεν ώσπερ εν οις διδε παρρησιάζεται. Χαιρήμων δε ο ιερογραμματεύς όλην βίβλον περί των τοιούτων γραμμάτων συνέταξεν. . άτινα, εν τοις προ[σφόροις] τόποις των Ομηρείων επών α[κρι]βέστερον και πλατυτέρως ερώ. ! ' “ Diodorus made mention of the Ethiopian characters and spoke particularly, yet as though he had learnt by hearsay from another and did not understand them accurately himself, although he set down some of them, as though he were talking confidently on subjects that he knew. But Chaeremon the sacred scribe compiled a whole book about the aforesaid characters, which I will discuss more accurately and more fully in the proper places in the Homeric poems." It is much to be regretted that Chaeremon's work, if he ever fulfilled his promise, has

not come down to us. Greek

One of the most valuable extracts from the works of translation of Egyp

Greek and Roman writers on Egypt is that from a translation tian text by of an Egyptian obelisk by Hermapion, preserved by Hermapion.

Ammianus Marcellinus; ? unfortunately, however, neither the name of Hermapion's work nor the time in which he lived is known. This extract consists of the Greek translation of six lines of hieroglyphics: three lines are from the south side of the obelisk, one line from the east side, and a second and a third line from the other sides. A comparison of the Greek extract with any inscription of Rameses II. on an obelisk shows at once that Hermapion must have had a certain accurate knowledge of hieroglyphics; his translation of the lines, however does not follow consecutively. The following

examples will show that the Greek, in many cases, represents Compari- the Egyptian very closely. Λέγει "Ηλιος βασιλεϊ Ραμέστη: Greek

δεδώρημαί σοι ανά πάσαν οικουμένην μετά χαράς βασιλεύειν, , translation δν "Ήλιος φιλεί

A Egyptian

101 to thee all lands and foreign countries with rest of heart, O king of the north and south, Usr-maāt-Rā-setep-en-Rā,

son of

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with the

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| Hermann, p. 146, 11. 12-22 ; Bachmann, p. 838, 11. 31-37. 2 Liber XVII. 4.

son of the Sun, Rameses, beloved of Amen-Rā.” OcoyévvNTOS

“ born of

κτιστής της οικουμένης = 61775 Χ 1


the gods, possessor of the two lands” (i.e., the world). 'O éUTÓS επ' αληθείας δεσπότης διαδήματος, την Αίγυπτον δοξάσας κεκτημένος, ο αγλαοποιήσας Ηλίου πόλιν = 12 ਚ

"[the mighty bull], resting upon 000 Law, lord of diadems, protector of Egypt, making splendid Heliopolis with monuments.” "Ήλιος θεός μέγας δεσπότης ουρανού 9


"Says Rā Har1 machis, the great god, lord of heaven,Timpóoas tòv veWV TOŮ φοίνικος αγαθών, ώ οι θεοί ζωής χρόνον εδωρήσαντο А

771 filling the temple of the bennu (phoenix) with his splendours, may the gods give to him life like the Sun for ever,” etc. The Flaminian obelisk, from which the Egyptian passages Flaminian

obelisk. given above are taken, was brought from Heliopolis to Rome by Augustus, and placed in the Circus Maximus,' whence it was dug out; it now stands in the Piazza del Popolo at Rome, where it was set up by Pope Sixtus V. in 1589. This obelisk was originally set up by Seti I., whose inscriptions occupy the middle column of the north, south, and west sides; the other columns of hieroglyphics record the names and titles of Rameses II. who, in this case, appropriated the obelisk of his father, just as he did that of Thothmes III. The obelisk was found broken into three pieces, and in order to render it capable of sustaining itself, three palms' length was cut from the base. The texts have been published by Kircher, Oedipus Aegyptiacus, t. iii. p. 213 ; by Ungarelli, Interpretatio Obeliscorum Urbis, Rome, 1842, p. 65, 999.,

Qui autem notarum textus obelisco incisus est veteri, quem videmus in Circo etc. Ammianus Marcellinus, XVII. 4, § 17. It seems to be referred to in Pliny, XXXVI. 29.

? For a comparative table of obelisks standing in 1840, see Bonomi, Notes on Obelisks, in Trans. Royal Soc. Lit., Vol. I. Second Series, p. 158.


plate 2; and by Bonomi, who drew them for a paper on this obelisk by the Rev. G. Tomlinson in Trans. Royal Soc. Lit., Vol. I. Second Series, p. 176 ff. For an account of this obelisk, see Zoëga, De Origine et Usu Obeliscorum, Rome, 1797, p. 92.

The next Greek writer whose statements on Egyptian

hieroglyphics are of value is Clement of Alexandria, who Cham flourished about A.D. 191-220. According to Champollion, pollion's estimate of “un seul auteur grec, .... a démêlé et signalé, dans Clement's l'écriture égyptienne sacrée, les élémens phonétiques, lesquels on hiero en sont, pour ainsi dire, le principe vital ? ..... Clément glyphics.

d'Alexandrie s'est, lui seul, occasionnellement attaché à en donner une idée claire; et ce philosophe chrétien était, bien plus que tout autre, en position d'en être bien instruit. Lorsque mes recherches et l'étude constante des monuments égyptiens m'eurent conduit aux résultats précédemment exposés, je dus revenir sur ce passage de Saint Clément d'Alexandrie, que j'ai souvent cité, pour savoir si, à la faveur des notions que j'avais tirées d'un examen soutenu des inscriptions hiéroglyphiques, le texte de l'auteur grec ne deviendrait pas plus intelligible qu'il ne l'avait paru jusquelà. J'avoue que ses termes me semblèrent alors si positifs et si clairs, et les idées qu'il renferme si exactement conformes à ma théorie de l'écriture hiéroglyphique, que je dus craindre aussi de me livrer à une illusion et à un entraînement dont tout me commandait de me défier.” From the above it will be seen what a high value Champollion placed on the statements concerning the hieroglyphics by Clement, and they have, in consequence, formed the subject of various works by eminent authorities. In his Précis (p. 328), Champollion gives the extract from Clement with a Latin translation and remarks by Letronne.

Dulaurier in his Examen d'un passage des Stromates de Saint Clément d'Alexandrie, Paris, 1833, again published the passage and gave many explanations of words in it, and commented learnedly upon it. (See also

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· Précis du Système hiéroglyphique des anciens Egyptiens, Paris, 1824, p. 321.
2 Précis, p. 327
3 See also Euvres Choisies, t. I. pp. 237-254.


Bunsen's Aegyptens Stelle, Bd. I., p. 240, and Thierbach,
Erklärung auf das Aegyptische Schriftwesen, Erfurt, 1846.)
The passage

is as follows:αυτίκα οι παρ' Αίγυπτίοις παιδευόμενοι πρώτον μεν πάντων την Clement of

Alexandria Αίγυπτίων γραμμάτων μέθοδος εκμανθάνουσι την επιστολογραφικών

on hieroκαλουμένην, δευτέραν δε την ιερατικήν, ή χρώνται οι ιερογραμματείς, glyphics. υστάτην δε και τελευταίαν την ιερογλυφικήν, ής ή μέν έστι διά των πρώτων στοιχείων κυριολογική, η δε συμβολική. της δε συμβολικής η μεν κυριολογείται κατά μίμησιν, ή δ' ώσπερ τροπικώς γράφεται, η δε αντικρυς άλληγορείται κατά τινας αινιγμούς, ήλιον γούν γράψαι βουλόμενοι κύκλον ποιούσι, σελήνην δε σχήμα μηνοειδές κατά το κυριολογούμενον είδος, τροπικώς δε κατ' οικειότητα μετάγοντες και μετατιθέντες, τα δ' έξαλλάττοντες, τα δε πολλαχώς μετασχηματίζοντες χαράτ

Τους γούν των βασιλέων επαίνους θεολογουμένους μύθους παραδιδόντες αναγράφoυσι δια των αναγλύφων, του δε κατά τους αινιγμούς τρίτου είδους δείγμα έστω τόδε. τα μεν γαρ των άλλων άστρων δια την πορείαν την λοξήν όφεων σώμασιν απείκαζον, τον δε ήλιον τω του κανθάρου, επειδή κυκλοτερες εκ της βοείας όνθου σχήμα πλασάμενος αντιπρόσωπος κυλίνδει. φασί δε και εξάμηνον μέν υπό γης, θάτερον δε του έτους τμήμα το ζωον τούτο υπέρ της διαιτασθαι, σπερμαίνειν τε εις την σφαίραν και γενναν, και θηλυν κάνθαρον μη γίνεσθαι. '


“For example, those that are educated among the TranslaEgyptians first of all learn that system of Egyptian characters which is styled EPISTOLOGRAPHIC; secondly, the HIERA- from TIC, which the sacred scribes employ; lastly and finally the HIEROGLYPHIC. The hieroglyphic sometimes speaks plainly by means of the letters of the alphabet, and sometimes uses symbols, and when it uses symbols, it sometimes (a) speaks plainly by imitation, and sometimes (6) describes in a figurative way, and sometimes (c) simply says one thing for another in accordance with certain secret rules. Thus (a) if they desire to write sun or moon, they make a circle or a crescent in plain imitation of the form. And when (6) they describe figuratively (by transfer and transposition without violating the natural meaning of words), they completely alter some things and make manifold changes in the form of others. Thus, they hand

tion of extract

Clement. .

1 Clem. Alex., ed. Dindorf, t. III. Strom. lib. v. SS 20, 21, pp. 17, 18,

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