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[Compare - 3) /id, chief, that which is in front, Accuracy
- xx of Tzetzes'
duke, prince. J statements
proved.

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16. “A stag, year; likewise the palm.”
[Of the stag meaning “year " I can give no example.

The palm branch { Or remput, is the common
word for “year.”]
“The boy signifies growth.”
[Compare #. which is the determinative of words
meaning “youth " and juvenescence.]
“The old man, decay.”
[Compare |}, the determinative of |\ } Fo
dau, “old age."]
“The bow, the swift power.”
[The Egyptian word for bow is D, 2-, pet.
Compare e= so pet, “to run, to flee away."]

“And others by the thousand. And by means of these characters Homer says this. But I will proceed in another place, if you please, to explain the pronunciation of those characters in Ethiopic fashion, as I have learnt it from Chaeremon.” "

In another place Tzetzes says, “Moreover, he was not Extract

uninitiated into the symbolic Ethiopian characters, the

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* Hermann, p. 123, ll. 2–29; Bachmann, p. 823, ll. 12–34. * Hermann, p. 17, ll. 21–25; Bachmann, p. 755, ll. 9-12.

Greek translation of Egyptian text by Hermapion.

Comparison of Greek translation with the Egyptian text.

dopt&6s attos étriotăuevos [el] kat Tuva toûtov catéNečev
Öatteo €v oss 618e traßmatágetat. Xalpijuov 6 tepolypap-
Auatei's 6\mu 88Aov trepi Tôv totowtov Ypappud tov avvéračev.
ättva, ću toss Tposa pápots] Tétrous Töv 'Oumpetov Štrów
&[xpt]8éatepov kai TAaTvTépos épô.” “Diodorus made
mention of the Ethiopian characters and spoke particularly,
yet as though he had learnt by hearsay from another and did
not understand them accurately himself, although he set
down some of them, as though he were talking confidently
on subjects that he knew. But Chaeremon the sacred scribe
compiled a whole book about the aforesaid characters, which
I will discuss more accurately and more fully in the proper
places in the Homeric poems.” It is much to be regretted
that Chaeremon's work, if he ever fulfilled his promise, has
not come down to us.
One of the most valuable extracts from the works of
Greek and Roman writers on Egypt is that from a translation
of an Egyptian obelisk by Hermapion, preserved by
Ammianus Marcellinus;* unfortunately, however, neither
the name of Hermapion's work nor the time in which he
lived is known. This extract consists of the Greek
translation of six lines of hieroglyphics: three lines are from
the south side of the obelisk, one line from the east side, and
a second and a third line from the other sides. A comparison
of the Greek extract with any inscription of Rameses II. on an
obelisk shows at once that Hermapion must have had a certain
accurate knowledge of hieroglyphics; his translation of the
lines, however does not follow consecutively. The following
examples will show that the Greek, in many cases, represents
the Egyptian very closely. Aéyet "HAtos 8aaixes: “Papéarn.
8é8ópmuai a ot dwa Tãoav oikovpuéumv pietà Xapás Saaixeiew,
6v "HXtos pixe? = in | o === < *.
__*, *, r*., K=-\%','o','o', '''Yo.
EE}}(oisoo)*.*(ojjīlū) “Says Rā, I give
to thee all lands and foreign countries with rest of heart,
O king of the north and south, Usr-maāt-Rā-setep-en-Ră,

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splendours, may the gods give to him life like the Sun for ever,” etc. The Flaminian obelisk, from which the Egyptian passages given above are taken, was brought from Heliopolis to Rome by Augustus, and placed in the Circus Maximus,' whence it was dug out; it now stands in the Piazza del Popolo at Rome, where it was set up by Pope Sixtus V. in 1589.” This obelisk was originally set up by Seti I., whose inscriptions occupy the middle column of the north, south, and west sides; the other columns of hieroglyphics record the names and titles of Rameses II. who, in this case, appropriated the obelisk of his father, just as he did that of Thothmes III. The obelisk was found broken into three pieces, and in order to render it capable of sustaining itself, three palms' length was cut from the base. The texts have been published by Kircher, Oedipus Aegyptiacus, t. iii. p. 213; by Ungarelli, Interpretatio Obeliscorum Urbis, Rome, 1842, p. 65, sqq.,

* Qui autem notarum textus obelisco incisusest veteri, quem videmus in Circo etc. Ammianus Marcellinus, XVII. 4, § 17. It seems to be referred to in Pliny, XXXVI. 29.

* For a comparative table of obelisks standing in 1840, see Bonomi, Motes on Obelisks, in Trans. Royal Soc. Lit., Vol. I. Second Series, p. 158.

Flaminian obelisk.

Champollion's estimate of Clement's StateIneIntS on hieroglyphics.

plate 2; and by Bonomi, who drew them for a paper on this
obelisk by the Rev. G. Tomlinson in Trans. Royal Soc. Lit.,
Vol. I. Second Series, p. 176 ff. For an account of this
obelisk, see Zoëga, De Origine et Usu Obeliscorum, Rome,
I797, p.92.
The next Greek writer whose statements on Egyptian
hieroglyphics are of value is Clement of Alexandria, who
flourished about A.D. 19I-22o. According to Champollion,
" un seul auteur grec, ... .. .. . a démêlé et signalé, dans
l'écriture égyptienne sacrée, les élémens phonétiques, lesquels
en sont, pour ainsi dire, le principe vital ! ... .. Clément
d'Alexandrie s'est, lui seul, occasionnellement attaché à en
donner une idée claire ; et ce philosophe chrétien était, bien

, plus que tout autre, en position d'en être bien instruit.

Lorsque mes recherches et l'étude constante des monuments égyptiens m'eurent conduit aux résultats précédemment exposés, je dus revenir sur ce passage de Saint Clément d'Alexandrie, que j'ai souvent cité, pour savoir si, à la faveur des notions que j'avais tirées d'un examen soutenu des inscriptions hiéroglyphiques, le texte de l'auteur grec ne deviendrait pas plus intelligible qu'il ne l'avait paru jusquelà. J'avoue que ses termes me semblèrent alors si positifs et si clairs, et les idées qu'il renferme si exactement conformes à : ma théorie de l'écriture hiéroglyphique, que je dus craindre aussi de me livrer à une illusion et à un entraînement dont tout me commandait de me défier."* From the above it will be seen what a high value Champollion placed on the statements concerning the hieroglyphics by Clement, and they have, in consequence, formed the subject of various works by eminent authorities. In his Précis (p. 328), Champollion gives the extract from Clement with a Latin translation and remarks by Letronne." Dulaurier in his Examen d'un passage des Stromates de Saint Clément d'Alexandrie, Paris, 1833, again published the passage and gave many explanations of words in it, and commented learnedly upon it. (See also

* Précis du Système hiéroglyphique des anciens Egyptiens, Paris, 1824, p. 321.
* Précis, p. 327.
* See also CEuvres Choisies, t. I. pp. 237-254.

Bunsen's Aegyptens Stelle, Bd. I., p. 240, and Thierbach,
Erklärung auf das Aegyptische Schristwesen, Erfurt, 1846.)
The passage is as follows:—

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