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reconnu, par exemple, le nom de Ptolémée dans diverses
inscriptions à Philae, à Esné et à Ombos, ce qui fixe à peu
près la date des édifices où ce nom se trouve, et c'est même
quelque chose que de pouvoir distinguer dans une inscription
quelconque les caractères qui expriment les noms des per-
sonnages auxquels elle a rapport." (Leitch, p. 6o.)
On Ioth November, I8I4, Champollion sent to the
President of the Royal Society a copy of his L'Egypte sous
les Pharaons, and in the letter which accompanied it said,
" La base de mon travail est la lecture de l'inscription en
caractères Egyptiens, qui est l'un des plus beaux ornemens
du riche Musée Britannique ; je veux parler du monument
trouvé à Rosette. Les efforts que j'ai faits pour y réussir
n'ont point été, s'il m'est permis de le dire, sans quelques
succès ; et les résultats que je crois avoir obtenus après une
étude constante et suivie, m'en font espérer de plus grands

Young deciphers the name of Ptolemy.

Young and Champollion cor

encore." (Leitch, p. 63.) He asked also that a collation of respond.

the Rosetta Stone with the copy of it which he possessed might be made, and suggested that a cast of it should be presented to each of the principal libraries, and to the most celebrated Academies of Europe. As Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, Young replied saying that the needful collation should be made, and adding, " Je ne sais si par hasard M. de Sacy, avec qui vous êtes sans doute en correspondance, vous aura parlé d'un exemplaire que je lui ai adressé de ma traduction conjecturale avec l'explication des dernières lignes des caractères hiéroglyphiques. Je lui avais déjà envoyé la traduction de l'inscription Egyptienne au commencement du mois d'Octobre passé ; l'interprétation des hiéroglyphiques ne m'est réussie qu'à la fin du même mois.'' (Leitch, p. 64.) In reply to this Champollion wrote, " M. Silvestre de Sacy, mon ancien professeur, ne m'a point donné connaissance de votre mémoire sur la partie Egyptienne et le texte hiéroglyphique de l'inscription de Rosette : c'est vous dire, Monsieur, avec quel empressement je recevrai l'exemplaire que vous avez la bonté de m'offrir." We have seen above from the extract from a letter of de Sacy that a copy of Young's work was lent to Champollion between May 9 and July 2O, I8I5.

Champollion acquainted with oung's work in

1815.

Young's work published.

On August 2, 1816, Young addressed a letter” to the Archduke John of Austria, in which he reported further progress in his hieroglyphic studies, thus: “I have already ascertained, as I have mentioned in one of my letters to M. de Sacy, that the enchorial inscription of Rosetta contained a number of individual characters resembling the corresponding hieroglyphics, and I was not disposed to place any great reliance on the alphabetical interpretation of any considerable part of the inscription. I have now fully demonstrated the hieroglyphical origin of the running hand,” in which the manuscripts on papyrus, found with the mummies . . . . . .” (Leitch, p. 74.) The principal contents of Young's letters, however, incorporated with other matter, were made into a more extensive article, which was contributed to the Supplement of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Supplement, Vol. IV. He made drawings of the plates, which were engraved by Mr. Turrell, and having procured separate copies, he sent them to some of his sriends in the summer of 1818, with a cover on which was printed the title, “Hieroglyphical Vocabulary.” These plates, however, were precisely the same that were afterwards contained in the fourth volume of the Supplement, as belonging to the article EGYPT. The characters explained in this vocabulary amounted to about two hundred ; the number which had been immediately obtained from the stone of Rosetta having been somewhat more than doubled by means of a careful examination of other monuments. . . . . . The higher numerals were readily obtained by a comparison of some inscriptions in which they stood combined with units and with tens.” Young's article in the Encyclopædia Britannica obtained great celebrity in Europe; and was reprinted by

* This letter was printed in 1816, and circulated in London, Paris, and elsewhere; it did not appear in the Museum Criticum until 1821.

* “Que ce second système (l’Hiératique) n'est qu'une simple modification du système Hiéroglyphique, et n'en differe uniquement que parla forme des signes.” Champollion, De l'Ecriture Hiératique des Anciens Egyptiens: Grenoble, 1821. We should have expected some reference by Champollion to Young's discovery quoted above.

* Young. An Account of some recent discoveries in Hieroglyphical Literature, p. 17.

Leitch in the third volume of the Works of Dr. Young, pp. 86–197; it contains eight sections:–

I. Introductory view of the latest publications re-
lating to Egypt.
II. Pantheon.
III. Historiography.
IV. Calendar.
V. Customs and Ceremonies.
VI. Analysis of the Triple Inscription.
VII. Rudiments of a Hieroglyphical Vocabulary.
VIII. Various Monuments of the Egyptians.

This article is of very great importance in the history of value of the decipherment of the hieroglyphics, and had Young taken .. the trouble of having it printed as a separate publication, Ænoyclothere would have been less doubt in the minds of scholars as %. to the good work which he did, and results borrowed from it ** by Champollion would have been more easily identified." It has already been said (p. 130) that Champollion published at Paris in 1814 the two first parts of a work entitled L’Egypte sous les Pharaons, ou recherches sur la Géographie, la ChamReligion, la Langue, les Ecritures et l’Histoire de l'Egypte o avant l'Invasion de Cambyse; these parts treated simply of § the geography of Egypt. In a note to the Preface he tells us that the general plan of the work, together with the introduction of the geographical section and the general map of Egypt under the Pharaohs, was laid before the Société des Sciences et des Arts de Grenoble, 1st September, 1807, and that the printing began on the 1st September, 1810. On p. 22 of his Introduction, referring to the Rosetta Stone, he says: “Ce monument intéressant est un décret des prêtres de

l'Egypte, qui décerne de grands honneurs au jeune roi

* Ich halte mich daher verpflichtet, alles auf unsern Gegenstand bezügliche dem Leser nachträglich genau mitzutheilen und zwar mit einer um so grössern Gewissenhaftigkeit, je hôher durch dessen Kenntniss die Achtung gegen den trefflichen Forscher steigen wird, der besonders in der Erklärung der symbolischen Hieroglyphen so Manches zuerst aussprach, was man ohne den Artikel der Encyclopaedie gelesen zu haben, meistens als das Eigenthum Champollion's zu betrachten gewohnt ist. Schwartze, Das Alte Aegypten, p. 446.

Ptolémée Epiphane. Ce décret est écrit en hiéroglyphes, en langue et en écriture alphabétique Egyptiennes, et en Grec.” Now by the words “en langue et en écriture alphabétique Egyptiennes” we are clearly to understand that part of the Rosetta inscription which is written in demotic. Having referred to the studies of de Sacy and Akerblad, and spoken of the words in demotic which the latter scholar had rightly compared with their equivalents in Coptic, “que nous y avons lus ensuite,” Champollion adds in a foot-note, “Ce n'est pas ici le lieu de rendre compte du résultat de l'étude suivie que nous avons faite du texte Egyptien de l'Inscription de Rosette, et de l'alphabet que nous avons adopté Nous nous occuperons de cet important sujet dans la suite de cet ouvrage. En attendant, nous prions le lecteur de regarder comme exacts les résultats que nous lui présentons ici.” From this it is clear that as early as 1810 Champollion claimed to have made progress in the decipherment of the demotic text (texte Egyptien) of the Rosetta Stone, and it is now time to ask how much he was indebted to Akerblad's letter for ideas and results. A comparison of Plate II. at the end of Akerblad's Lettre sur l'Inscription Egyptienne de Rosette, with Plate IV. in Champollion's Lettre à M. Dacier relative d l'Alphabet des Hieroglyphes Phonétiques, will show that sirteen of the characters of the alphabet printed by Akerblad in 1802 were retained by Champollion in 1822; also, if Akerblad's alphabet be compared with the “Supposed Enchorial Alphabet” printed at the foot of Plate IV. accompanying Young's article EGYPT, printed in 1818 and published in 1819, it will be found that fourteen of the characters are identical in both alphabets. Thus it seems that a greater degree of credit is due to Akerblad than has usually been awarded to him either by Young" or Champollion," or, indeed, by writers on Egyptology generally.”

Chamllion's ieroglyphical studies in 1810.

Akerblad attributes correct values to fourteen Demotic characters.

* Mr. Akerblad was far from having completed his examination of the whole enchorial inscription, apparently from the want of some collateral encouragement or co-operation to induce him to continue so laborious an inquiry; and he had made little or no effort to understand the first inscription of the pillar which is professedly engraved in the sacred character, except the detached observation respecting the numerals at the end; he was even disposed to acquiesce in the correctness of Mr. Palin's interpretation, which proceeds on the supposition that

parts of the first lines of the hieroglyphics are still remaining on the stone. Young, An Account, p. 10.

Having seen what foundations Young and Champollion had for their own works on the demotic text to rest on, we may return to the consideration of Young's hieroglyphical studies. On the four plates which appeared with his article EGYPT, he correctly identified the names of a few of the gods, Ră, Nut, Thoth, Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys, and he made out the meanings of several Egyptian ideographs. His identifications of kings' names were, however, most unfortunate. Thus of Amenhetep, he made Tithons; of Thi (a queen), Eoa ; of Usertsen, Heron; of Psammetichus, Sesostris; of Nectanebus, Proteus; of Seti, Psammis; of Rameses II., Amasis; of Autocrator, Arsinoe, etc., etc. He correctly identified the names of Ptolemy and Berenice, although in each case he attributed wrong values to some of the hieroglyphic characters which formed these names. The hieroglyphic alphabet given by Young was as follows:—

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3.

2 IO. Ke, KIt 25 SE.

2 II. JRR, RRA- 33 M.

* “Feu Akerblad essaya d’étendre ses lectures hors des noms propres grecs, et il échoua complètement.” Champollion, Précis, I ed., p. 14.

* See Schwartze, Das Alte Aegypten, pp. 160, 162.

* No. 205, which is omitted here, is really two demotic characters the values of which are BA and R : to these Young gave the value BERE, and so far he was right, but he failed to see that what he considered to be one sign was, in reality, two. In Nos. 213 and 214 his consonants were right but his vowels were wrong. We are thus able to see that out of a total of fourteen signs, he assigned correct values to six, partly correct values to three, and wholly wrong values to five. Champollion-Figeac in his Lettre au Directeur de la Revue Britannique au sujet des Recherches du Docteur Young sur les Hiëroglyphes Egyptiens, p. 5, gives Young no credit whatever for the three partly correct values assigned to hieroglyphic characters by him.

Young's hieroglyphic alphabet.

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