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we find that we are able to read the first at once KAISRS, which is clearly Kalo apos or Caesar; in the second the only sign we do not know is @ Writing down the values we know we have A.TAKRTR, which is clearly Autokpatop; thus the value of the second character must be U. In this manner Champollion worked through the names of all the Ptolemies and the Roman Emperors, and eventually succeeded in making out the value of one hundred and eleven signs. At the foot of Plate I., in his Lettre à Monsieur Dacier, he writes his own name in hieroglyphics thus :

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The following are the letters of the Egyptian alphabet with their values as now accepted by Egyptologists :

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OPINIONS OF EGYPTOLOGISTS ON THE LABOURS OF

YOUNG AND CHAMPOLLION.
In favour of Young.

In favour of Champollion. The first idea of certain hiero His [Young's] translations, howglyphics being intended to represent ever, are below criticism, being as sounds was suggested by Dr. Young, unfounded as those of Kircher. who, from the names of Ptolemy How far even, in the decipherment, and Berenice, had pointed out nine, he proceeded correctly, may be which have since proved to be doubted. . . . But even here [in correct; the former taken from the interpretation] there is much too Rosetta inscription, and the latter incorrect in principle to be of real deduced with singular ingenuity use; much of it is beneath criticism. from the enchorial of the same - BIRCH, Hieroglyphs, p. 196. monument. [M. Champollion fils seems to be unwilling to allow this: It is even to this day a common but the fact is evident; and surely habit of Englishmen to couple the he has accomplished too much to name of their countryman, Dr. stand in need of assuming to him Thomas Young, with that of Chamself the merits of another. Note 1,

pollion, as sharing with him the p. 1.] Working upon this basis,

glory of this discovery. No person M. Champollion, with happy suc who knows anything of Egyptian cess, made out four or five others,

philology can countenance so gross as also about thirty synonymes ; an error ...... But it is not true and by the ingenious application of that he discovered the key to the these, the merit of which is all his decipherment of hieroglyphics, or own, he has been able to turn to even that his labours assisted Chameffect the discovery, and to decipher pollion in the discovery. When the therewith a great number of the key was once discovered and renames of the Ptolemies and of the

cognized as the true one, it was Roman emperors. . ....-SALT, found that one or two of Young's H., Essay on Dr. Young's and results were correct. But there was M. Champollion's Phonetic Systemi nothing in his method or theory by of Hieroglyphics; London, 1825. which he or anyone else could dis

tinguish between his right and his wrong results, or which could lead him or anyone else a single step in

advance. Amidst this mass of error and has a right to be named in concontradiction, the application of the junction with Champollion, it is not phonetic principle by Young, in Young, but Akerblad, to whom he 1818, had all the merit of an original does full justice (as he does indeed discovery .. .. and it was only to Young himself) at the very beby a comparison of the three kinds ginning of his letter to M. Dacier. of writing that he traced the name -RENOUF, Hibbert Lectures; Lonof Ptolemy up in his own way, don, 1880, pp. 12–16.

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In favour of Young.

In favour of Champollion. from the demotic into hieratic, into Sæculi enim hujus et initium hieroglyphs.-BIRCH, Hieroglyphs, usque quum cognitio hieroglyph . in WILKINSON, The Egyptians, orum, quibus veteres Aegyptii in pp. 195, 196.

sacra dialecto scribenda utebantur, densissimis tenebris scateret, ita

quidem ut fere omnia, quæ antea Fast gleichzeitig mit dem alten

vel eruditissimi homines summo Jomard .....; hatte Dr. Young

ingenii acumine explorasse sibi visi das Glück aus den hieroglyphi

sunt, si hodie forte legimus risum schen Texten die Bezeichnungen

vix tenere possimus : hoc lapide für die Einer, Zehner, Hunderte,

detecto postquam omnium animi und Tausende richtig herauszuer

ad spem enucleandi tandem istud kennen und überdies den hierogly

monstruosum et perplexum per tot phischen Königsnamen-

sæcula quasi involucris involutorum POL

genus signorum arrecti sunt, unus O is und

vir Champollio Francogallus ex

stitit, qui mira sagacitate incrediKA-t bilique studio adjutus totam hiero

glyphorum rationem nulla fere parte ihre entsprechende griechische relicta luce clarius explanavit et Form Ptolemaios und Berenike exposuit. — BRUGSCH, Inscriptio gegenüberzustellen, eine Entdeck Rosettana; Berlin, 1851, pp. 1, 2. ung, die ihm allein gebührt und die den Ausgangspunkt der späteren

Unabhängig von Young kam

gleichzeitig ein junger französischer Entzifferungen bilden sollte ......

Gelehrter, François Champollion, Dr. Young's glückliche Zusammen

zu der gleichen Vermutung und ihm stellungen der oben aufgeführten

es beschieden, sogleich ein ägyptisch-hieroglyphischen Eigennamen mit ihren entsprechenden

war

völlig richtiges Resultat zu erhalten.

-ERMAN, Argypten, p. 14. griechischen Vorbildern sollten ihm plötzlich die Augen öffnen und

Young, qui, le premier, ihn [i.e., Champollion) auf den fit l'application du principe phonerechten Pfad führen.-BRUGSCH, tique à la lecture des hiéroglyphes. Die Aegyptologie, pp. 9, 11.

Cette idée fut, dans la réalité, le fiat lux de la science. .... Toute

fois, malgré quelques succès rcEin solcher Ring mit Hiero

marquables, Young ne sut pas la glyphen

féconder ; il avait bien reconnu

dans les hiéroglyphes les noms de fand sich nun auch an den betref Ptolémée et de Bérénice, mais sans fenden Stellen der Inschrift von réussir à assigner à chacun des Rosette und er musste den Namen signes qui les composent leur véritades Ptolemäus bilden. Es war der ble valeur; ses autres lectures sont bekannte englische Naturforscher fausses, quoiqu'il ait rencontré juste Thomas Young, der im Jahre 1819 dans la détermination de la valeur

Cine 440

In favour of Young.

In favour of Champollion. diesen scharfsinnigen und völlig alphabétique de plusieurs caracrichtigen Schluss machte und tères. Quelques minces qu'ils wenigstens für einige Zeichen des soient, ces premiers résultats conNamens den Lautwert feststellte. stitueraient en faveur du docteur ERMAN, Aegypten, p. 14

Young un titre considérable, s'il ne les avait pas compromis lui-même en s'engageant dans une fausse

voie, et en publiant des traductions Der erste, der es that und von tout aussi imaginaires que celles de dem richtigen Grundsatze ausging, ses devanciers. La solution du dass die Königsnamen alphabetisch problème était réservée au génie geschrieben sein müssten..... war de Champollion le jeune ; c'est un der berühmte englische Physiker honneur que personne ne peut lui Thomas Young (geboren 1773). Er disputer. — CHABAS, L'Inscription erkannte in der häufigsten in dem de Rosette, p. 5. Dekret von Rosette vorkommenden Gruppe den Namen Ptolemäus, er

Wenn wir die Frage so stellen: vermochte ein später zum grossen

Wer hat zuerst einige hieroglyphiTeile bestätigtes hieroglyphisches

sche Zeichen in ihrem Lautwerthe Alphabet aufzustellen

aufzustellen und sie über das System der ägyptischen

richtig bestimmt ? oder besser Schrift vollkommen richtige An

gesagt, zufällig errathen, so müssen

wir antworten: das war Th. Young; sichten zu bilden. So haben wir

den Schlüssel zur Entzifferung der denn in Young den eigentlichen Entzifferer der ägyptischen Schrift

Hieroglyphenschrift jedoch hat er

nicht gefunden. François Chamzu sehen, wenn es ihm auch nicht

pollion, geb. den 23. December 1799, gelang, der Sprache selbst Herr zu werden. — WIEDEMANN,

gest. den 4. März 1832, er ist es,

Aegypt. ische Geschichte, p. 29.

den die Wissenschaft der Aegyptologie in dankbarer Verehrung als ihren eigentlichen Begründer nennt

:-DÜMICHEN, Geschichte

des alten Aegypiens, Berlin, 1878, In the first work of Champollion,

S. 304 his essay De l'Ecriture hiératique des Anciens Egyptiens, published in 1821, he recognized the existence Zwei grosse Männer, in England of only the first of these three ways der auf vielen Gebieten des Wissens of representing words, supposing ausgezeichnete Thomas Young, in that all the Egyptian characters Frankreich François Champollion, represented ideas. When he dis begaben sich zu gleicher Zeit, aber covered the erroneousness of this unabhängig von einander, an die opinion, he used all possible efforts Arbeit. Beider Bemühungen lohnte to suppress the work in which he schöner Erfolg. Champollion aber had stated it. That work, however, wird mit Recht vor seinem britcontained a valuable discovery. .. ischen Rivalen als Entzifferer der

S. 49.

In favour of Young.

In favour of Champollion. . . In the year after this pub. Hieroglyphen genannt werden lication, Champollion published his müssen.—EBERS, Aegypten in Bild Lettre à M. Dacier, in which he und Wort; Leipzig, 1879, Bd. ii., announced the phonetic powers of certain hieroglyphics and applied them to the reading of Greek and

Un savant anglais du plus grand

mérite, Th. Young, essaya de reRoman proper names. Had he

constituer l'alphabet des cartouches. been candid enough to admit that he was indebted to Dr. Young for

De 1814 à 1818, il s'exerça sur les the commencement of his discovery,

divers systèmes d'écriture égypand only to claim the merit of ex

tienne, et sépara mécaniquement tending and improving the alpha

les groupes différents dont se com

posaient le texte hiéroglyphique et bet, he would probably have bad his claims to the preceding and

le texte démotique de l'inscription

de Rosette. Après avoir détersubsequent discoveries, which were certainly his own, more readily

miné, d'une manière plus ou moins admitted by Englishmen than they

exacte, le sens de chacun d'eux, il have been. In 1819 Dr. Young had

en essaya la lecture. ... ... Ses

idées étaient justes en partie, mais published his article “Egypt” in

sa méthode imparfaite ; il entrevit the Supplement to the Encyclo

la terre promise, mais sans pouvoir pædia Britannica ; and it cannot

y entrer. Le véritable initiateur be doubted that the analysis of the

fut François Champollion. . . names “ Ptolemæus” and “Bere

MASPERO, Histoire Ancienne ; nice,” which it contained, reached

Paris, 1886, pp. 729, 730. Champollion in the interval between his publication in 1821 and 1822, Ce fut en 1819, que le Dr. Young and led him to alter his views. . . déclara le premier que les car... The Grammaire Egyptienne touches, ou encadrements ellipought to have been given to the tiques, dans le texte hiéroglyphique public as his sole bequest in the de l'inscription de Rosette, corresdepartment of Egyptian philology. pondaient aux noms propres grecs It was published from a manuscript et particulièrement à celui de Ptoléwritten in 1831, immediately before mée du texte grec, et aux groupes, his last illness. Shortly before his du même nom, dans le texte interdecease, having carefully collected médiaire en écriture égyptienne the sheets, he delivered them to his démotique ou vulgaire, groupes qui brother, with the remark, “Be care avaient été déjà reconnus et déful of this ; I trust that it will be my composés par MM. Silvestre de visiting card to posterity.” Even Sacy et Akerblad. Il allait encore the warmest admirers of Cham plus loin en supposant que chaque pollion must admit that he left his signe du cartouche représentait un system in a very imperfect state. son du nom de Piolémée et en Few, probably, will deny that he cherchant à les définir réellement held many errors to the close of un à un par une analyse très inhis life, both in what respects the génieuse.

Plusieurs signes

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