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we find that we are able to read the first at once KAISRS, which is clearly Kato apos or Caesar; in the second the only sign we do not know is Q. Writing down the values we know we have A.TAKRTR, which is clearly Avrokpatop; thus the value of the second character must be U. In this manner Champollion worked through the names of all the Ptolemies and the Roman Emperors, and eventually succeeded in making out the value of one hundred and eleven signs. At the foot of Plate I., in his Lettre d Monsieur Dacier, he writes his own name in hieroglyphics thus:—

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The following are the letters of the Egyptian alphabet with their values as now accepted by Egyptologists:—

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In favour of Young.

The first idea of certain hieroglyphics being intended to represent sounds was suggested by Dr. Young, who, from the names of Ptolemy and Berenice, had pointed out nine, which have since proved to be correct; the former taken from the Rosetta inscription, and the latter deduced with singular ingenuity from the enchorial of the same monument. [M. Champollion fils seems to be unwilling to allow this: but the fact is evident; and surely he has accomplished too much to stand in need of assuming to himself the merits of another. Note 1, p. 1.] Working upon this basis, M. Champollion, with happy success, made out four or five others, as also about thirty synonymes; and by the ingenious application of these, the merit of which is all his own, he has been able to turn to effect the discovery, and to decipher there with a great number of the names of the Ptolemies and of the Roman emperors. . . . . . —SALT, H., Essay on Dr. Young's and M. Champollion's Phonetic System of Hieroglyphics, London, 1825.

Amidst this mass of error and contradiction, the application of the phonetic principle by Young, in 1818, had all the merit of an original discovery . . . . . . and it was only by a comparison of the three kinds of writing that he traced the name of Ptolemy up in his own way,

In favour of Champollion. His [Young's] translations, however, are below criticism, being as unfounded as those of Kircher. How far even, in the decipherment, he proceeded correctly, may be doubted. . . . But even here [in interpretation] there is much too incorrect in principle to be of real use; much of it is beneath criticism.

—BIRCH, Hieroglyphs, p. 196.

It is even to this day a common habit of Englishmen to couple the name of their countryman, Dr. Thomas Young, with that of Champollion, as sharing with him the glory of this discovery. No person who knows anything of Egyptian philology can countenance so gross all CITOr . . . . . . But it is not true that he discovered the key to the decipherment of hieroglyphics, or even that his labours assisted Champollion in the discovery. When the key was once discovered and recognized as the true one, it was found that one or two of Young's results were correct. But there was nothing in his method or theory by which he or anyone else could distinguish between his right and his wrong results, or which could lead him or anyone else a single step in advance. . . . . . . . . . If anyone has a right to be named in conjunction with Champollion, it is not Young, but Akerblad, to whom he does full justice (as he does indeed to Young himself) at the very beginning of his letter to M. Dacier. —RENOUF, Hiðbert Lectures, London, 1880, pp. 12–16.

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fand sich nun auch an den betreffenden Stellen der Inschrift von Rosette under musste den Namen des Ptolemäus bilden. Es war der bekannte englische Natursorscher Thomas Young, der im Jahre 1819

In favour of Champollion.

Saeculi enim hujus et initium usque quum cognitio hieroglyphorum, quibus veteres Aegyptii in sacra dialecto scribenda utebantur, densissimis tenebris scateret, ita quidem ut fere omnia, quae antea vel eruditissimi homines summo ingenii acumine explorasse sibi visi sunt, si hodie forte legimus risum vix tenere possimus: hoc lapide detecto postguam omnium animi ad spem enucleandi tandem istud monstruosum et perplexum per tot saecula quasi involucris involutorum genus signorum arrecti sunt, unus vir Champollio Francogallus exstitit, qui mira sagacitate incredibilique studio adjutus totam hieroglyphorum rationem nulla fere parte relicta luce clarius explanavit et exposuit. — B R U GSCH, Inscriptio A'oset/ana, Berlin, 1851, pp. 1, 2.

Unabhängig von Young kam gleichzeitig ein junger französischer Gelehrter, François Champollion, zu der gleichen Vermutung und ihm war es beschieden, sogleich ein völlig richtiges Resultat zu erhalten. —ERMAN, Argypten, p. 14.

- - - - - Young, qui, le premier, fit l'application du principe phonētique à la lecture des hiéroglyphes. Cette idée fut, dans la réalité, le fiat lur de la science. . . . . Toutefois, malgré quelques succès remarquables, Young ne sut pas la féconder ; il avait bien reconnu dans les hieroglyphes les noms de Ptolémée et de Bérénice, mais sans réussir à assigner a chacun des signes quiles composent leur veritable valeur; ses autres lectures sont fausses, quoiqu'il ait rencontré juste dans la détermination de la valeur In favour of Young. diesen scharfsinnigen und völlig richtigen Schluss machte und wenigstens für einige Zeichen des Namens den Lautwert feststellte.— ERMAN, Aegypten, p. 14.

Der erste, der es that und von dem richtigen Grundsatze ausging, dass die Königsnamen alphabetisch geschrieben sein müssten. . . . . war der berühmte englische Physiker Thomas Young (geboren 1773). Er erkannte in der hāufigsten in dem Dekret von Rosette vorkommenden Gruppe den Namen Ptolemäus, er vermochte ein später zum grossen Teile bestätigtes hieroglyphisches Alphabet aufzustellen und sie iiber das System der ägyptischen Schrift vollkommen richtige Ansichten zu bilden. So haben wir denn in Young den eigentlichen Entzifferer der ägyptischen Schrift zu sehen, wenn es inmauch nicht gelang, der Sprache selbst Herr zu werden. —WIEDEMANN, Aegyptische Geschichte, p. 29.

In the first work of Champollion, his essay De l'Ecriture hieratigue des Anciens Egyptiens, published in 1821, he recognized the existence of only the first of these three ways of representing words, supposing that all the Egyptian characters represented ideas. When he discovered the erroneousness of this opinion, he used all possible efforts to suppress the work in which he had stated it. That work, however, contained a valuable discovery. . .

In favour of Champollion.

alphabétique de plusieurs caractères. Quelques minces qu'ils soient, ces premiers résultats constitueraient en faveur du docteur Young un titre considérable, s'il ne les avait pas compromis lui-même en s'engageant dans une fausse voie, et en publiant des traductions tout aussi imaginaires que celles de ses devanciers. La solution du problème était réservée au génie de Champollion le jeune; c'est un honneur que personne ne peut lui disputer. — CHABAs, L’Inscription de Rosette, p. 5.

Wenn wir die Frage so stellen : Wer hat zuerst einige hieroglyphische Zeichen in ihrem Lautwerthe richtig bestimmt 2 oder besser gesagt, zufallig errathen, so missen wir antworten: das war Th. Young; den Schlüssel zur Entzifferung der Hieroglyphenschrift jedoch hat er nicht gefunden. François Champollion, geb. den 23 December 1790, gest. den 4. März 1832, er ist es, den die Wissenschaft der Aegyptologie in dankbarer Verehrung als ihren eigentlichen Begründer nennt . . . . . . .-DüMICHEN, Geschichte des alten Aegypiens, Berlin, 1878, S. 3O4.

Zwei grosse Männer, in England der auf vielen Gebieten des Wissens ausgezeichnete Thomas Young, in Frankreich François Champollion, begaben sich zu gleicher Zeit, aber unabhängig von einander, an die Arbeit. Beider Benniihungen lohnte schöner Erfolg. Champollion aber wird mit Recht vor seinem britischen Rivalen als Entzifferer der In favour of Young.

- - - - - - In the year after this publication, Champollion published his Iettre d M. Dacier, in which he announced the phonetic powers of certain hieroglyphics and applied them to the reading of Greek and Roman proper names. Had he been candid enough to admit that he was indebted to Dr. Young for the commencement of his discovery, and only to claim the merit of extending and improving the alphabet, he would probably have bad his claims to the preceding and subsequent discoveries, which were certainly his own, more readily admitted by Englishmen than they have been. In 1819 Dr. Young had published his article “Egypt” in the Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannica; and it cannot be doubted that the analysis of the names “Ptolemaeus” and “Berenice,” which it contained, reached Champollion in the interval between his publication in 1821 and 1822, and led him to alter his views. . . . The Grammaire Egyptienne ought to have been given to the public as his sole bequest in the department of Egyptian philology. It was published from a manuscript written in 1831, immediately before his last illness. Shortly before his decease, having carefully collected the sheets, he delivered them to his brother, with the remark, “Be careful of this ; I trust that it will be my visiting card to posterity.” Even the warmest admirers of Champollion must admit that he left his system in a very imperfect state. Few, probably, will deny that he held many errors to the close of his life, both in what respects the

In favour of Champollion. Hieroglyphen genannt werden müssen.—EBERs, Aegypten in Bild und Wort; Leipzig, 1879, Bd. ii., S. 49.

Un savant anglais du plus grand merite, Th. Young, essaya de reconstituerl’alphabet des cartouches. De 1814 a 1818, il s'exerga sur les divers systèmes d'écriture égyptienne, et separa mécaniquement les groupes différents dont se composaient le texte hiéroglyphique et le texte démotique de l'inscription de Rosette. Après avoir déterminé, d'une manière plus ou moins exacte, le sens de chacun d'eux, il en essaya la lecture. . . . . . . Ses idées étaient justes en partie, mais sa méthode imparfaite; il entrevit la terre promise, mais sans pouvoir y entrer. Le véritable initiateur fut François Champollion. . . . . . — MASPERO, Histoire Ancienne; Paris, 1886, pp. 729, 730.

Ce fut en 1819, que le Dr. Young déclara le premier que les cartouches, ou encadrements elliptiques, dans le texte hiéroglyphique de l'inscription de Rosette, correspondaient aux noms propres grecs et particulièrement a celui de Ptolémée du texte grec, et aux groupes, du méme nom, dans le texte intermédiaire en écriture égyptienne démotique ou vulgaire, groupes qui avaient été déjà reconnus et décomposés par M.M. Silvestre de Sacy et Akerblad. Il allait encore plus loin en supposant que chaque signe du cartouche représentait un son du nom de Ptolémée et en cherchant à les définir réellement un a un par une analyse très ingénieuse. . . . . . . Plusieurs signes

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