Page images

perishable body 2

be given for these four component parts of the whole of a man to drift away one from the other, and to prevent this the

xa must be preserved in such a way that each limb of it may meetly be identified with a god, and the whole of it with Osiris, the judge of the dead and king of the nether world. The tomb must be made a fit and proper dwelling-place for the ka, which will never leave it as long as the body to which it belongs lies in its tomb. The furniture of the tomb must be of the best, and every material, and the workmanship thereof, must also be of the best.

The cher-heb next goes to the embalming chamber and

orders his assistants to begin their operations upon Ani's body, The cm

over which formulæ are being recited. The body is first balmment. washed and then laid upon the ground, and one of the

assistants traces with ink on the left side, over the groin, a line, some few inches long, to indicate where the incision is to be made in the body; another assistant takes a knife, probably made of flint, and makes a cut in the body the same length as the line drawn in ink by his companion. . Whether this man was then driven away with sticks, and stones thrown after him, as Diodorus states, or not, is a moot point upon which the inscriptions give us no information. The chief intestines and the heart and lungs were then carefully taken out and washed in palm wine, and stuffed with sweet smelling spices, gums, etc. They were next smeared all over with an unguent, and then carefully bandaged with strips of linen many yards long, on which were inscribed the names of the four children of Horuswho symbolized the four cardinal points and of the four goddesses who took the intestines under their special protection. While this was being done a set of four alabaster jars was brought from the stores of the cher-heb's establishment, and in each of these one of the four packets of

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]


“the four
children of Horus, in the form of four figures made of metal, with the face of a
man, with the face of an ape, with the face of a jackal, and with the face of a

embalmed intestines was placed. Each jar was inscribed with a forinula, and all that was wanted to make it the property of Ani was to inscribe his name upon it in the blank spaces left for the purpose. Each jar had a cover made in Jars for the form of the head of the child of Horus to whom it was

intestines. dedicated. The jar of Mestha had the head of a man, and in it was placed the stomach ; it was under the protection of Isis. The jar of Hāpi had the head of an ape, and in it were placed the smaller intestines; it was under the protection of Nephthys. The jar of Țuamāutef had the head of a jackal, and in it was placed the heart ; it was under the protection of Neith. The jar of Qebħsennuf had the head of a hawk, and in it was placed the liver; it was under the protection of Serqet. The inscriptions on the jars state that the part of the deceased in it is identified with the child of Horus to whom the jar is dedicated, and that the goddess under whose charge it is protects it. The covers of the jars are fastened on by running in liquid plaster, and they are finally set in the four divisions of a coffer on a sledge with a vaulted cover and a projecting rectangular upright at each corner. It was of the greatest inportance to have the intestines preserved intact, for without them a man could not hope to live again. The brain is Removal

of brain. next removed through the nostrils by means of an iron rod curved at one end, and is put aside to be dried and buried with the body; at every step in these processes religious formulæ are recited. The body thus deprived of its more perishable parts is taken and laid to soak in a tank of liquid natron for a period of seventy days. At the end of this time it is taken out and carefully washed and dried, and it is seen that it is of a greenish-grey colour; the skin clings to the The body bones, for the flesh beneath it has shrunk somewhat, but the steeped in hair of the body is well preserved, the nails of the hands and feet still adhere to the skin, and the face, though now drawn and very thin, has changed but little. Longitudinal slits are next made in the fingers and toes and the fleshy parts of the arms, thighs and legs, which are then stuffed with a mixture of sweet spices and natron, and sewn up again. The cavity in


1 In mummies of the best period the intestines are sometimes found in packets beneath the bandages. B. M.


ments of

the skull is now filled up with a mixture of spices, powdered plaster and natron, and the nostrils through which it was inserted are plugged up with small linen pledgets dipped in some astringent; obsidian eyes are also inserted in the eyesockets. Large quantities of gums, spices, natron, as well as a very little bitumen, are pounded and well mixed together, and with them the breast and stomach are carefully packed through the slit in the side ; while certain formulæ are being recited, a gold plate inscribed with the utchat, or eye of Horus,

is laid upon it to indicate that this god watched over this body as he did over that of his father Osiris. The nails of

the hands are stained with henna (Arab. lis), and on the The orna- little finger of the left hand is placed Ani's gold ring, in the

bezel of which is mounted a handsome steatite scarab inthe body.

scribed on the base with his name and titles. The ring was supposed to confer upon the deceased some power, but what that power was is not yet exactly made out; it is certain, however, that no one was buried without one or more, and if the relatives of the deceased were not able to buy them in gold or silver, they made use of faïence rings, glazed various colours, and even of small strings of beads which they tied on the fingers in lieu of rings. The legs are then brought closely together, and the arms are laid on the body with one wrist crossed over the other. The cher-heb next provides a large and handsome scarab made of green basalt which is set in a frame of gold, over the back of it is a horizontal band of the same metal, at right angles to which, on the side of the tail of the beetle, runs another band which joins the frame; at the head of the scarab is a gold loop through which is now threaded a thick gold wire sufficiently long to go round Ani's neck. This scarab was part of the stock in trade of the cher-heb, and all that was necessary to do to make it Ani's property was to inscribe his name and titles upon it in the

blank line left for the purpose at the head of the flat base. The scarab This done the scarab was covered with a thin gold leaf and laid over

The inscription upon it eart.

laid upon Ani's breast at the neck.


| According to some rubrics of the thirtieth chapter the scarab was to be placed “ within the heart” of a person after the ceremony of “opening the mouth "


was one of the verses of the 30th chapter of the Book of the Dead, and contained a prayer, addressed by Ani to his heart, that there might not be brought against him adverse evidence when it was weighed in the balance in the judgment hall of Osiris, that he might not be obstructed or driven back, and that his name might not be overthrown by those powers who made it their business to harass the newcomers among the dead in the nether-world. The prayer ends with a petition that no false evidence may be borne against him in the presence of the god. And now the bandaging begins. The body is first of all smeared all over with unguents. Pieces of linen are then torn into strips about three inches wide, and one edge of each strip is gummed. On one end of each of these the name of Ani has been written in hieratic characters to facilitate the identification of the mummy during the process of bandaging; a number of these strips are dipped in water, and the embalmers having bandaged the fingers, hands, and arms, and toes separately, begin to bandage the body from the feet upwards. The moist bandages cling tightly to the body, and the gummed edge enables each fold of the bandage to obtain firm hold ; the little irregularities are corrected by small pledgets of linen placed between the folds and gummed in position. These linen bandages are also held in position by means of narrower strips of linen wound round the body at intervals of six and eight inches, and tied in a double knot. Over these fine linen bandages passages from the Book of the Dead, and formulae which were intended to give power to the dead, are written. One end of a very thick bandage of eighteen to twenty-five folds of linen is laid under the shoulders, and the other is brought over the head and face, and rests on the upper part of the chest ; this is held in position by a bandage wound round the neck, and tied in a double knot at the back of the neck. The same plan is adopted with respect to the feet, but before the bandage

<--> __, co- o 3) —“– Acos- row \s <--> L-1 – awwwa.

T. No o ! { } ~ Dok

(Naville, Bd. II, 99), had been performed ; this rite, however, took place in the


Process of bandaging.

which secures all is tied, thick pads of linen are laid on the

top of the feet to prevent any injury happening to them when Process of the mummy is made to stand upright. The bandaged arms bandaging

having been pressed closely into the sides, and the fore-arms and hands having been laid upon the stomach, the bandaging

goes on again, while formulæ are recited by the cher-heb. Names of Each bandage had a special name, each bandage gave power dages.

to the deceased, and was inscribed with words and figures of gods, which also gave him power, and the adjustment of each in its proper position required both care and judgment. More folds of linen are laid on the body perpendicularly,:

the ban

| Referring to the embalming of the feet, the following extract is of interest. “After these things perform the embalming operations on his right and left arms, and then the . . . . . and the children of Horus, and the children of Chent-āat, shall carry out the embalming operations on the two legs of the deceased. Rub the feet, legs, and thighs of the deceased with black stone (?) oil, and then rub them a second time with the finest oil. Wrap the toes in a piece of cloth, draw two jackals upon two pieces of linen with colours mixed with water perfumed with anti, and each jackal shall have his face turned towards the other ; the jackal on the one

bandage is Anubis, lord of Hert; the jackal on the other is Horus, lord of | Hebennu. Put Anubis on the right leg, and Horus on the left leg, and wrap

them up in fine linen. To complete the embalming of the legs, take six measures of anchamu flowers, natron and resin, and mix with water of ebony gum, and put three measures on the right leg and three measures on the left. Then put some fresh (?) senb flowers made into twelve bundles (?) on the left leg, and twelve bands of linen, and anoint with the finest oil.” Maspero, Le Rituel de l'Em. baumement, pp. 43, 44, in Mémoire sur Quelques Papyrus du Louvre (Extrait des Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits, tom. xxiv., 1te partie ; Paris, 1875).

? E.g., one of the bandages of the nostrils was called

8 nehi,

and the other

190 10 smen ; a head bandage ( 107 8 heuthethsu,

4f 107

the two bandages of the cheek

änchth anchth su, the two

ao bandages of the top of the head


lovi 3 While the head was being bandaged the following petition was recited hy one of the embalmers :-“O most august goddess, O lady of the west, mistress of the east, come and enter into the two ears of the deceased ! O doubly powerful, eternally young, and very mighty lady of ihe west, and mistress of the east may breathing take place in the head of the deceased in the nether world ! Grant that he may see with his eyes, that he may hear with his two ears, that he may breathe through his nose, that he may utter sounds from his mouth, and articulate with his tongue in the nether world! Receive his voice in the hall of truth and justice, and his triumph in the hall of Seb in the presence of the great

« PreviousContinue »