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charged their syringes with oil made from cedar, they fill the
abdomen of the corpse without making any incision or taking
out the bowels, but inject it at the fundament; and having
prevented the injection from escaping, they steep the body
in natrum for the prescribed number of days, and on the last
day they let out from the abdomen the oil of cedar which
they had before injected, and it has such power that it brings
away the intestines and vitals in a state of dissolution ; the
natrum dissolves the flesh, and nothing of the body remains
but the skin and the bones. When they have done this they
return the body without any further operation.
“The third method of embalming is this, which is used
only for the poorer sort. Having thoroughly rinsed the
abdomen in syrmaea, they steep it with natrum for 70 days,
and then deliver it to be carried away.” "
According to Genesis l. 3, the embalming of Jacob
occupied 40 days, but the period of mourning was 70 days.
From Egyptian documents it is known that the length of the
period from the death of a man to his burial varied ; in one
case the embalming occupied 16 days, the bandaging 35
days, and the burial 70 days, i.e., 121 days in all. In a
second case the embalming occupied 66 days, preparations
for burial 4 days, and the burial 26 days; in all 96 days.
Elsewhere we are told that the embalming lasts 70 or 8o
days, and the burial ten months.”
The account given by Diodorus (I. 91) agrees with that
of Herodotus in many particulars, but some additional details
are given. According to it, if any man died, all his relatives
and friends threw dust or mud on their heads, and went
round about through the town uttering cries of grief as long
as the body remained unburied ; during the interval between
the death and the burial, they abstained from the use of
baths and wine, they partook of no choice foods, and they put
not on fine apparel. The methods of embalming were three
in number; the most expensive, the less expensive, and the
poorest of all. The first method cost one talent of silver, about

Third method of embalming.

Period of embalmment varied in length.

Account of embalming by Diodorus.


* Cary's translation, pp. 126, 127.

* For the authorities see Wiedemann, Herodots Zweites Buch, p. 358.

Cost of embalming a body.

£250; the second twenty minæ, about £63; and the third cost very little indeed. The people who practise the art of embalming belong to a class of men in whose families this Profession is hereditary, and they set down in writing a statement of the various methods of embalming practised by them and the cost of each, and ask the relatives of the dead man to decide upon the method to be adopted. When this question has been settled, the embalmers take the body into their charge, and they hand it to those who are fully acquainted with the process of embalming. The first of these called the “scribe” (ypajpateus) makes a mark on the left side of the body, which is laid upon the ground, to indicate where the incision is to be made. Next, a man, called the “ripper up" (napao Xiotńs), with an Ethiopian stone (λίθον Αιθιοπικον) makes a cut in the side lengthwise of the size indicated by the scribe. Having done this, he flees away in all haste, pursued by his assistants, who hurl after him pieces of stone and call down curses, that vengeance may come upon him for this crime ; for the Egyptians hold in abomination anyone who wounds or commits an act of violence upon the human body. The embalmers (Tapixeutai) are held in high honour, and are treated with much consideration, because they are friends of the priests, and are allowed to enter the sanctuary as if they were ceremonially pure. Having assembled around the body, one of them puts his hand into it through the cut that has been made, and draws out everything that he finds inside, with the exception of the heart and reins (lungs?); others clean the intestines, and

wash them with palm-wine and balsams. Finally, having

v treated the body first with oil of cedar and other materials balming.

of this nature, and then with myrrh, cinnamon, and other sweetsmelling drugs and spices suitable for cmbalming purposes, they bring it into such a state of completeness, that the eye-lashes and eye-brows remain uninjured, and its form is so little changed that it is easy to recognize the features. The greater number of the Egyptians who keep the bodies of their ancestors in magnificent chambers, enjoy the sight of those who have been dead for several generations, and they feel great satisfaction in seeing the features and form of these

Details of em


bodies, and look upon them, to a certain extent, as contemporaries.

With reference to the fleeing away of the paraschistes it is difficult to understand what Diodorus had in his mind. A little further on he says that the embalmers were great friends of the priests, and as this was certainly the case, the man who performed the operation probably merely fulfilled a religious obligation in fleeing away, and had very little to fear. In some particulars Diodorus appears to have been mis- Stateinformed, and in any case the knowledge he possessed of Diodorus mummies could hardly have been at first hand. He lived too not wholly late (about B.C. 40) to know what the well-made Theban worthy. mummies were like, and his experience therefore would only have familiarized him with the Egypto-Roman mummies, in which the limbs were bandaged separately, and the contour of their faces, somewhat blunted, was to be seen through the thin and tightly drawn bandages which covered the face. A good example of a mummy made about this date is that of the lady Mut-em-Mennu, which is preserved in the British Museum, No. 6704; in this mummy the features of the face can be clearly distinguished underneath the bandages. A curious idea about the fate of the intestines taken from Fate of the

Plutarch 1 the body obtained among certain Greek writers.

intestines. says, in two places, that when the Egyptians have taken them out of the body of the dead man, they show them to the sun as the cause of the faults which he had committed, and then throw them into the river, while the body, having been cleansed, is embalmed. Porphyry' gives the same account at

1 οι των νεκρών ανατέμνοντες έδειξαν το ηλίω, είτ' αυτά μεν εις τον ποταμών κατέβαλον, του δε άλλου σώματος ήδη καθαρού γεγονότος επιμέλονται. Ρlutarch, VII. Sap. Conv., XVI., ed. Didot, p. 188. Cf. also 'Etei kal@s cixev, bonep Αιγύπτιοι των νεκρών την κοιλίαν εξελόντες και προς τον ήλιον ανασχίζοντες εκβάλλουσιν, ώς αιτίαν απάντων ων ο άνθρωπος ήμαρτεν. Ρlutarch, De Carnium Esu, Oratio Posterior, ed. Didot, p. 1219.

2 Εκείνο μέντοι ου παραπεμπτέον, ότι τους αποθανόντας των ευ γεγονότων όταν ταριχεύωσιν, ίδια την κοιλίαν εξελόντες και εις κιβωτόν ενθέντες μετά των άλλων, ών διαπράττονται υπέρ του νεκρού, και την κιβωτόν κρατούντες προς τον ήλιον μαρτύρονται, ενός των υπέρ του νεκρού ποιουμένου λόγον των ταριχευτών.

greater length, and adds that the intestines were placed in a box; he also gives the formula which the embalmers used when showing the intestines to the sun, and says that it was translated by Ekphantos into Greck out of his own language, which was presumably Egyptian. The address to the sun and the other gods who are supposed to bestow life upon man, the petition to them to grant an abode to the deceased with the everlasting gods, and the confession by the deceased that he had worshipped, with reverence, the gods of his fathers from his youth up, that he had honoured his parents, that he had neither killed nor injured any man, all these have a sound about them of having been written by some one who had a knowledge of the "Negative Confession" in the 125th chapter of the Book of the Dead. On the other hand it is difficult to imagine any Greek acquainted with the manners and customs of the Egyptians making the statement that they threw the intestines into the river, for when they were not placed in jars separate from the body, they were mummified and placed between the legs or arms, and bandaged up with the body, and the future welfare of the body in the nether-world depended entirely upon its having every member complete.

An examination of Egyptian mummies will show that the accounts given by Herodotus and Diodorus are generally correct, for mummies both with and without ventral incisions are found, and some are preserved by means of balsams and gums, and others by bitumen and natrum. The skulls of mummies which exist by hundreds in caves and pits at

General correctness of statements of Hercdotus and Diodorus.

"Εστι δε και ο λόγος, δν ήρμήνευσεν "Εκφαντος εκ της πατρίου διαλέκτου,
τοιούτος. 'Ω δέσποτα ήλιε, και θεοι πάντες οι τήν ζωήν τους ανθρώποις δόντες,
προσδέξασθέ με και παράδοτε τοις αιδίοις θεοίς σύνοικον. 'Εγώ γάρ τους θεούς,
ούς οι γονείς μοι παρέδειξαν, ευσεβών διετέλουν όσον χρόνον εν τω εκείνω
αιώνι τον βίον είχον, τούς τε το σώμα μου γεννήσαντας ετίμων αεί· των τε άλλων
ανθρώπων 2 ούτε απέκτεινα, ούτε παρακαταθήκην απεστέρησα, ούτε άλλο ουδέν
ανήκε στον διεπραξάμην. Ει δέ τι άρα κατά τον εμαυτού βίον ήμαρτον ή φαγών
ή πιών ων μη θεμιτόν ήν, ου δί έμαυτόν ήμαρτον, αλλά διά ταύτα (δείξας την
kißwròv, év ń yaotip nv). Porphyry, De Abstinentia, lib. IV., 10, ed. Didot,
p. 75.

1 Wilkinson reads “ Euphantus" (Ancient Egyptians, iii. 479).
: Wiedemann (IIerodots Zweites Buch, p. 354) adds oudéra in brackets.

Thebes contain absolutely nothing, a fact which proves that the embalmers were able not only to remove the brain, but also to take out the membranes without injuring or breaking the bridge of the nose in any way. Skulls of mummies are found, at times, to be filled with bitumen, linen rags, or resin. The bodies which have been filled with resin or some such substance, are of a greenish colour, and the skin has the appearance of being tanned. Such mummies, when unrolled, perish rapidly and break easily. Usually, however, the resin and aromatic gum process is favourable to the preservation of the teeth and hair. Bodies from which the intestines have been removed and which have been preserved by being filled with bitumen are quite black and hard. The features are preserved intact, but the body is heavy and unfair to look upon. The bitumen penetrates the bones so completely that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish which is bone and which is bitumen. The arms, legs, hands, and feet of such mummies break with a sound like the cracking of chemical glass tubing; they burn very freely, and give out great heat. Speaking generally they will last for ever. When a body has been preserved by natron, that is, a mixture of carbonate, sulphate, and muriate of soda, the skin is found to be hard, and to hang loosely from the much the same way as it hangs from the skeletons of the dead monks preserved in the crypt beneath the Capuchin convent at Floriana, in Malta. The hair of such mummies usually falls off when touched. The Egyptians also preserved their dead in honey. ‘Abd cl-Latif relates that an Egyptian worthy of belief told him that once when he and several others were occupied in exploring the graves and seeking for treasure near the Pyramids, they came across a sealed jar, and having opened it and found that it contained honey, they began to eat it. Some one in the party remarked that a hair in the honey turned round one of the fingers of the man who was dipping his bread in it, and as they drew it out the body of a small child appeared with all its limbs complete and in a good state of preservation; it was well dressed, and had upon it numerous ornaments.” The body of Alexander the Great

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