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In the early centuries of our era, mummies of wealthy people were wrapped in royal cloth made wholly of silk." When Pisentios, Bishop of Coptos, and his disciple John took up their abode in a tomb in the “mountain of Tchêmi” (surroot

it 6 furs-1 = 2=s 3%) 3. the necropolis of Thebes) they

found it filled with a number of mummies, the names of which were written on a parchment roll which lay close by them. The two monks took the mummies and piled them up one upon the other; the outer coffins were very large, and the coffins in which the bodies were laid were much decorated. The first mummy near the door was of great size, and his fingers and his toes were bandaged separately (itecs. H6 ft xix sters.

rtec 63-X&tx khc it ot2.1 oval); the clothes in which he was wrapped were made entirely of silk (2,02\ochpikorto itTe rtion popot).” The monk who wrote this description of mummies, and coffins, and silk, evidently described what he had actually seen. The huge outer coffins to which he refers belong to a very late period, as do also the highlydecorated inner coffins; the fingers and toes being bandaged separately also points to a late Roman period. His testimony

Description of mummies by Pisentios.

* Silk, Heb. *to (Ezek. xvi. 10, 13), LXX., reixarrow, anpoc (Rev. xvii. 12), Syr. los, was common in Greece and Rome at the end of the second

century of our era. According to Aelius Lampridius (cap. 26), Heliogabalus was the first Roman who wore cloth made wholly of silk, holoserica weste, and an idea of the value of silk in the early days of its adoption in Europe is gained from the fact that Aurelian denied his wife a shawl of purple silk because a pound of silk cost one pound weight in gold (Flavius Vopiscus, Vit. Aur., cap. 45). The custom of women wearing silk was railed at by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, Ambrose, Chrysostom and others; yet Basil, about A.D. 370, illustrated the doctrine of the resurrection from the change of the chrysalis into a butterfly. The custom in Italy of wrapping dead bodies in silk is probably not earlier than the end of the third century, and in Egypt we may place it about one hundred years later. On the use of silk by the ancients, see Yates, Textrinum Antiquorum, pp. 161–249, and for the collected statements of ancient authors on the subject, see G. D. Hoffman, Observationes circa Bombyces, Sericum, et Moros, ex antiquitatum, historiarum, juriumque penu depromptat ; Tübingen, 4to., 1757.

* Greek 5Aoompiróc.

* For the complete text see Amélineau, Etude sur le Christianisme en Egypte, P. I43.

Silken mummy cloths.

that silk was used for wrapping mummies is corroborated by the fact that within the last few years a number of mummies wrapped in cloths covered with silk" have been found. In the British Museum is a fine specimen (No. 17,173), in which two men on horseback, four dogs, flowers, etc., are woven in green and yellow on a reddish ground. The whole is inside a circular border ornamented with flowers. This piece of silk is sewn on a piece of fine yellow silk which is in turn sewn on a piece of ordinary mummy cloth to strengthen it. Mummies of the Roman period were identified by small wooden labels, of an average size of five inches by two inches, pierced at one end, and tied to the necks of the dead. The inscriptions record the name of the deceased, and sometimes those of his father and mother, and the number of years of his life; some are in Greek only, a large number are bilingual, Greek and demotic, and a few also give the equivalent of the inscriptions in hieroglyphics. Unfortunately they are very easy to forge, for the natives use old wood from Egyptian coffins, and are able to imitate the inscriptions very closely, and many imitations are sold to tourists annually. The Egyptian Christians appear to have adopted the system of mummifying, and to have mixed up parts of the old Egyptian mythology with their newly adopted Christianity. Already in the IIIrd century of our era the art of mummifying had greatly decayed, and although it was adopted by wealthy people, both Christian and Pagan, for two or three centuries longer, it cannot be said to have been generally in use at a period later than the IVth century. I believe that this fact was due to the growth of Christianity in Egypt. The Egyptian embalmed his dead because he believed that the perfect soul would return to its body after death, and that it would animate it once more ; he therefore took pains to preserve the body from all destroying influences in the grave. The Christian believed that Christ would give him back his body changed and incorruptible, and that it was therefore unnecessary for him to preserve it with spices and drugs. The idea of embalming the body and keeping it in the house with the living seems to have been repugnant to many famous Christians in Egypt, and Anthony the Great admonished his two faithful disciples not to allow his body to be taken into Egypt, but to bury it under the ground in a place known to none but themselves, lest it should be laid up in some dwelling. He disapproved of this custom, and had always entreated those who were in the habit of keeping the body above ground to give it up; and, concerning his own body, he said, “At the resurrection of the dead I shall receive it from the Saviour incorruptible.” For the description of a plaque, which must have come from the mummy of a Copt, see under “Anubis” in the article “Figures of the Gods.”


of em-
balming in
Egypt due
to Chris-

* For excellent coloured representations of Byzantine mummies, see plates A and B, in Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique Française au Caire, tom. iii., Paris, 1890.


The bandages with which the bodies of men and animals are wrapped were, until comparatively lately, believed to be made of cotton. In 1646 Greaves stated in his Pyramidographia that the “ribbands, by what I observed, were of /inen, which was the habit also of the Egyptian priests,” and he adds, “of these ribbands I have seen some so strong and perfect as if they had been made but yesterday.” Ronelle in the Mémoires de l'Académie R. des Sciences, for 1750, asserted that every piece of mummy cloth that he had seen was made of cotton, and Forster” and Solander, Larcher * and Maty, Blumenbach * and others accepted this opinion.

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Mummy cloths were thought to be made of Cotton.

Mummy cloths made of linen.

Jomard thought that both cotton and linen were used for bandages of mummies;" Granville, in the Philosophical Transactions for 1825, p. 274, also embraced this view. The question was finally settled by Mr. Thomson, who after a twelve years' study of the subject proved in the Philosophical Magazine (IIIrd Series, Vol. V., No. 29, Nov., 1834) that the bandages were universally made of linen. He obtained for his researches about four hundred specimens of mummy cloth, and employed Mr. Bauer of Kew to examine them with his microscopes. “The ultimate fibre of cotton is a transparent tube without joints, flattened so that its inward surfaces are in contact along its axis, and also twisted spirally round its axis : that of flax is a transparent tube jointed like a cane, and not flattened nor spirally twisted.” The coarse linen of the Egyptians was made of thick flax, and was used for making towels, awnings and sail-cloth ;” the fine linen, 'O6övm, is thought by some to be the equivalent of the Bono loots of Proverbs vii. 16. The Greek XV8&v = Heb. TTP, was used to denote any linen cloth, and sometimes cotton cloth; but the orw8óvos Bwaatvms with which mummies, according to Herodotus (II. 86), were bandaged, is certainly linen. The Egyptian word usually translated

by “byssus" is .313 shens, Coptic geric; ordinary words for linen are *: Ö mák, *CŞılö mennui,

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l. 17). One piece of very fine texture of linen obtained at Thebes had 152 threads in the warp, and 71 in the woof, to each inch, and a second piece described by Wilkinson (Ancient Egyptians, III. 165) had 540 threads in the warp, and I lo in the woof." One of the cities in Egypt most

' Description de l'Egypte; Mémoires sur les Hypogées, p. 35.

* See Yates, Zeatrinum Antiquorum ; London, 1843, p. 262, where the whole subject is carefully discussed.

* Comp. Engon mon, too, Ezekiel, xxvii. 7.

* See also an interesting letter by De Fleury to M. Devéria on “Les Etosses Fgyptiennes" in Rev. Arch., t. XXI, Paris, 1870, pp. 217-221.

famous for its linen industry was OS 3 Apu, the Pano-
polis of the Greeks," the 25xx-Los. or golist of the Copts,
and Akhmim * of the Arabs ; but as Egypt exported great
quantities of this material, and also used immense quantities
for bandages of mummies, it is probable that other cities
also possessed large linen manufactories.”
The length and breadth of mummy bandages vary from
about 3 feet by 2% inches, to 13 feet by 4% inches; some are
made with fringe at both ends, like a scarf, and some have
carefully made selvedges. Large linen sheets several feet
square are also found in tombs. The saffron coloured pieces

Panopolis the great centre of linen weavers.

Mummy bandages.

of linen with which mummies are finally covered measure

about 8 feet by 4 feet. Usually two or three different kinds of linen cloth are used in bandaging mummies. Mummy cloths are with very few exceptions quite plain, and it is only in

the Greek times that the fine outer linen covering is

decorated with figures of gods, etc., in gaudy colours. Several
square pieces of linen in the Museums of Europe are
ornamented with blue stripes, and it is pretty certain that the
threads which form them were dyed with indigo before they
were woven into the piece. As far back as the time of
Amenophis III. it was customary to inscribe texts in the
hieratic and hieroglyphic characters upon mummy cloths,
and at that period large vignettes accompany the chapters
from the Book of the Dead; after the XXVIth dynasty
hieratic only appears to have been used for this purpose, and
the bandages, which are rarely more than four inches wide,
are frequently so coarse that the text is almost illegible.
Badly drawn vignettes, drawn in outline, usually stand at the
top of each column of writing.
The marvellous skill which the Egyptians displayed in
making linen did not die out with the fall of the native

* IIavöv róxic, Auvovoyāv kai Au0oup'yūv karoukia traxaid, Strabo, XVII., 1.42. * Akhmim has a population of about 10,000 souls, and of these Iooo are Christians. In the map published by Yates (7:3trinum Antiquorum, p. 250) to show the divisions of the ancient world in which sheep's-wool, goat's-hair, hemp, cotton, silk, beaver's-wool, camel's-wool, camel's-hair and linen are found, the only other districts where linen was made besides Egypt are Colchis, Cinyps, and a district near the mouth of the Rhine.

Duration of the linen industry

in Egypt.

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