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and drugs. The idea of embalming the body and kecping it in the house with the living seems to have been repugnant to many famous Christians in Egypt, and Anthony the Great admonished his two faithful disciples not to allow his body to be taken into Egypt, but to bury it under the ground in a place known to none but themselves, lest it should be laid up in some dwelling. He disapproved of this custom, and had always entreated those who were in the habit of keeping the body above ground to give it up; and, concerning his own body, he said, “At the resurrection of the dead I shall receive it from the Saviour incorruptible.”? For the description of a plaque, which must have come from the mummy of a Copt, see under “ Anubis” in the article “Figures of the Gods."



The bandages with which the bodies of men and animals Mummy

cloths were are wrapped were, until comparatively lately, believed to be thought to made of cotton. In 1646 Greaves stated in his Pyramido- be made of graphia that the “ribbands, by what I observed, were of linen, which was the habit also of the Egyptian priests,” and he adds, “ of these ribbands I have seen some so strong and perfect as if they had been made but yesterday.” Ronelle in the Mémoires de l'Académie R. des Sciences, for 1750, asserted that every piece of mummy cloth that he had seen was made of cotton, and Forster and Solander, Larcher and Maty, Blumenbach * and others accepted this opinion.


μη αφεϊτέ τινας το σώμα μου λαβείν εις Αίγυπτον, μήπως εν τοις οίκους απόθωνται τούτου γάρ χάριν εισήλθον εις το όρος, και ήλθον ώδε. Οίδατε δε και πως αεί ενέτρεπον τους τούτο ποιoύντας, και παρήγγελλον παύσασθαι της τοιαύτης συνηθείας. θάψατε ούν το ημέτερον υμείς, και υπό γην κρύψατε και έστω το παρ' εμού ρήμα φυλαττόμενον παρ' υμίν, ώστε μηδένα γινώσκειν τον τόπον, πλην υμών μόνων. 'Εγώ γαρ εν τη αναστάσει των νεκρών απολήψομαι παρά του Ewtipos äpeaprov aútó.-See Life of Antony by Athanasius.

(Migne, Patrologiae, Ser. Græc. tom. 26, col. 972.)

· De Bysso Antiquorum, London, 1776, pp. 70, 71.

Hérodote, Paris, 1802, p. 357. Beiträge, Göttingen, 1811, pt. 2, p. 73.

Mummy cloths made of linen.

Jomard thought that both cotton and linen were used for
bandages of mummies;' Granville, in the Philosophical
Transactions for 1825, p. 274, also embraced this view. The
question was finally settled by Mr. Thomson, who after a
twelve years' study of the subject proved in the Philosophical
Magazine (IIIrd Series, Vol. V., No. 29, Nov., 1834) that the
bandages were universally made of linen. He obtained for
his researches about four hundred specimens of mummy
cloth, and employed Mr. Bauer of Kew to examine them
with his microscopes. “The ultimate fibre of cotton is a
transparent tube without joints, flattened so that its inward
surfaces are in contact along its axis, and also twisted
spirally round its axis : that of flax is a transparent tube
jointed like a cane, and not flattened nor spirally twisted.""
The coarse linen of the Egyptians was made of thick flax,
and was used for making towels, awnings and sail-cloth ; :
the fine linen, OBóvn, is thought by some to be the equivalent
of the one you of Proverbs vii. 16. The Greek Elvdáv
= Heb. 1"?, was used to denote any linen cloth, and some-
times cotton cloth; but the oivdóvos Buooiums with which
mummies, according to Herodotus (II. 86), were bandaged,
is certainly linen. The Egyptian word usually translated
by" byssus” is no shens, Coptic cyerc; ordinary
words for linen are ho q māk,
po nu, Coptic N&T = odovia Brooivor (Rosetta Stone,
1. 17). One piece of very fine texture of linen obtained at
Thebes had 152 threads in the warp, and 71 in the woof, to
each inch, and a second piece described by Wilkinson
(Ancient Egyptians, III. 165) had 540 threads in the warp,
and uo in the woof. One of the cities in Egypt most

0 0940 mennui,

| Description de l'Esyfte; Mémoires sur les Hypogées, p. 35.

• See Yates, Textrinum Antiquorum ; London, 1843, p. 262, where the whole subject is carefully discussed.

• Comp. Ona şizma toit), Ezekiel, xxvii. 7.

* See also an interesting letter by De Fleury to M. Devéria on “ Les Etofies Egyptiennes ” in Rev. Arch., t. XXI, Paris, 1870, pp. 217-221.

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famous for its linen industry was

Apu, the Pano- Panopolis

the great polis of the Greeks, the Delile or cyeeir of the Copts, centre of

Jinen and Akhmîm ? of the Arabs; but as Egypt exported great quantities of this material, and also used immense quantities for bandages of mummies, it is probable that other cities also possessed large linen manufactories. The length and breadth of mummy bandages vary from Mummy

bandages. about 3 feet by 2 inches, to 13 feet by 41 inches; some are made with fringe at both ends, like a scarf, and some have carefully made selvedges. Large linen sheets several feet square are also found in tombs. The saffron coloured pieces of linen with which mummies are finally covered measure about 8 feet by 4 feet. Usually two or three different kinds of linen cloth are used in bandaging mummies. Mummy cloths are with very few exceptions quite plain, and it is only in the Greek times that the fine outer linen covering is decorated with figures of gods, etc., in gaudy colours. Several square pieces of linen in the Museums of Europe are ornamented with blue stripes, and it is pretty certain that the threads which form them were dyed with indigo before they were woven into the piece. As far back as the time of Amenophis III. it was customary to inscribe texts in the hieratic and hieroglyphic characters upon mummy cloths, and at that period large vignettes accompany the chapters from the Book of the Dead; after the XXVIth dynasty hieratic only appears to have been used for this purpose, and the bandages, which are rarely more than four inches wide, are frequently so coarse that the text is almost illegible. Badly drawn vignettes, drawn in outline, usually stand at the top of each column of writing.

The marvellous skill which the Egyptians displayed in Duration making linen did not die out with the fall of the native linen

industry Πανών πόλις, λινουργών και λιθουργών κατοικία παλαιά, Strabo, XVII.,1. 42, in Egypt.

Akhmim has a population of about 10,000 souls, and of these 1000 are Christians.

In the map published by Yates (Textrinum Antiquorum, p. 250) to show the divisions of the ancient world in which sheep's-wool, goat's-hair, hemp, cotton, silk, beaver's-wool, camel's-wool, camel's-hair and linen are found, the only other districts where linen was made besides Egypt are Colchis, Cinyps, and a district near the mouth of the Rhine.

sovereigns of Egypt, and the Copts, or native Christians of that country, carried on the industry with splendid success until the twelfth century of our era. Although they ccased to mummify their dead, for the hope of the resurrection of the body given by Christianity practically killed the art of embalming, they continued to dress them in garments which

are remarkable for the beauty of the embroidery and Discovery tapestries with which they are decorated. A great "find” of Chris

of fine examples of this work was made at Akhmîm, the tian necropolis at ancient Panopolis, in 1884. The graves at Akhmîm are Panopolis. about five feet deep, and are not indicated by any mound.

The bodies appear to have been buried with natron sprinkled over them, for many of their garments are covered with crystals of this substance; and they appear also to have been buried with their best clothes on. The head was provided with a band or cap, and was sometimes supported on a pillow. . The body wore a tunic, and the feet had stockings, sandals or shoes upon them; the head, breast, arms, and fingers were decorated with ornaments. The condition in life of the deceased was indicated by inscriptions on rectangular wooden tesseræ (see p. 188), or by his tools, which were buried with him. The body was entirely covered over with linen and laid

upon a board, and thus dressed was then deposited in the Ornaments earth. The chief ornaments found in the tombs at Akhmîm found upon the bodies.

are: hair-pins and combs made of wood or bone; earrings of several shapes and forms made of glass; silver and bronze filigree work, gold with little gold balls, and iron with pendent agates; necklaces made of amber, coloured glass, and blue and green glazed farence beads; torques, or neck-rings, made of bronze; bracelets, open and closed, made of bronze, iron, glass and horn; finger-rings of bronze; and bronze belt buckles made in the form of a Christian cross.

A large number of ivory crosses are also found; the cross which is found so often on these objects was not used merely as an

ornament, but as a special symbol and emblem of Christianity,1 Age of the The most ancient and the greater number of the tombs which necropolis.

1 I owe these details to rer, Die Gräber und Textilfurde von Achmim - Panopolis. Strassburg, 1891, pp. 12, 13. This book contains 16 plates on which are photographed, in colours, 250 pictures of the textile fabrics and the other most interesting objects found at Akhmim.

contained these belong to the second or third century after Christ, and the most recent to the eighth or ninth century;' they are taken from bodies of Christians and heathen which were buried with or without coffins, or in private or common burial places. The Museum of Gobelins possesses a piece of cloth, the threads of the woof of which are made of pure silk, and this is said by M. Gerspach, the Director of the National Manufactory at Gobelins, to belong to a period subsequent to the eighth century, because silk does not appear in Egyptian tapestries until that century. It may then be considered that the Coptic linen work found at Akhmîm covers a period of eight centuries, viz., ii-ix. M. Gerspach adds, “Il est fort probable que les Coptes ont continué, pendant plusieurs siècles encore, une fabrication dans laquelle ils excellaient; ils ont vraisemblablement travaillé à ces milliers de pièces représentant les grands hommes de l'Islam, montrant des villes, des paysages et des animaux que possédait le calif Mostansser-Billah et qui furent brûlées au Caire en 1062 avec les immenses richesses accumulées dans le Dépôt des étendards” (p. 2). Of the character, style, design, and antiquity Gerspach of Coptic linen work he says, “Le style est plus ou moins pur, linen work mais il dénote constamment une grande liberté de composition and de

signs. et de facture ; il est exempt de minuties et de subtilités, même lorsque nous ne comprenons pas très bien la pensée de l'artiste. Quand il ne se rattache pas à la décoration romaine ou à l'art oriental, il est original, il a un caractère propre, une saveur particulière, qu'il soit fin comme nos dentelles ou épais et obtus comme les ornements des races inférieures; il constitue alors, dans une manifestation intime et populaire, un genre spécial qu'on nommera peut-être bientôt le style copte. A première vue, en effet, on retrouve l'antiquité dans les pièces les plus simples, qui sont aussi les plus anciennes; en général, ces morceaux sont d'une seule couleur pourpre ou brune, avec

1 According to Forrer (p. 26), the foundation of the cemetery at Akhmim may be dated in the first or second century after Christ, and the decay of the art of the best kind is to be sought at the end of the seventh or in the course of the eighth century after Christ.

2 Les Tapisseries Coples, Paris, 1890, p. 2. This most interesting work contains 153 reproductions in one or more colours of the most important designs found on Akhmim linen.

B. M.

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