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The inscriptions on the outsides of the jars, which are sometimes accompanied by inscribed figures of the four gods, vary considerably; some consist of a few words only, but others occupy several lines. These inscriptions show that each of the four gods was under the protection of a goddess ; thus Isis guarded Mestha, Nephthys guarded Hāpi, Neith guarded Țuamāutef, and Selket or Serqet guarded Qebhsennuf. The following are examples of the formulæ inscribed on these jars :I. AMSET.

ง met' an Auset

t'et setep - å Speech of

Says Isis,

I the foe, make 1




? 4 =




in me.


of68fc 1

oll her Åmsel enti åm å protection over Àmseth who is

The protection of of88fo 4一 9 二 Ausår

Åmsel Ausar Amseo Osiris [is] the protection of Amseth, (for] Osiris [is] Amseth.



1 These inscriptions are taken from the set of Canopic jars exhibited in the British Museum, Nos. 886 to 889; they were made for the commander of soldiers

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Neser-áb-Rā-em-xut, Psammetichus, son of Neith, son of Ta-tā nub-ḥetep. See Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions, ist Series, pl. 114.

? Here follow the name and titles of the deceased.

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Speech of

met' in Nebt-het hap - å seseta ári - å

Says Nephthys, Hide I the secret thing, make I

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semāśer å hru neb her ari māket en make pass the night I of day every in making the protection of

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Tuamāutef Àusar

[is] the protection of Tuamāutef, [ for] Osiris [is]

Tuamāutef suamāutef."

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\\ ص

Frequently the first parts of these inscriptions read, Variant


āãui her enti im-a. “I embrace with my two arms that which is in me;"

AX the variants for

and ång; frequently also they only contain the names and titles

of the deceased preceded by the words 2018 amxi xer

“watchfully devoted to," which are followed by the names of the four gods. Oiten the same formula is repeated on all

four jars.


The chests, or coffers, which held Canopic jars were made of wood, and were usually painted black; they were fitted on a kind of sledge with two runners, the ends of which were rounded. They are about two feet square. On one end are traced in outline figures of Neith and Serqet, and on the other Isis and Nephthys; on the one side are Mesthå and Hāpi, and on the other Tuamāutef and Qebhsennuf. By the side of each god is inscribed the formula which is given in the 151st chapter of the Book of the Dead, and by the side of each goddess is inscribed the formula which is found on Canopic vases. (Excellent examples of chests on sledges are Nos. 8543a, and 85436, 3rd Egyptian Room, British Museum.) The inside of the chest is divided into four equal spaces by wooden partitions, and in each stood a jar. The use of such chests is certainly as old as the XIIth dynasty.





The Book
of the
Dead not a

The collection of chapters, or distinct compositions, which the ancient Egyptians inscribed upon pyramids, walls of tombs, sarcophagi, coffins and papyri, amulets and other objects which were buried in the tombs with the dead was called “Rituel Funéraire" by Champollion, and this misleading name was adopted by De Rougé, who, in his Etudes sur le Rituel Funéraire des Anciens Egyptiens,' brought forward reasons for so doing, and considered that all he had said "justifie suffisamment, suivant nous, le titre choisi par Champollion." Champollion's grammar shows that he had studied every part of the so-called Ritual, and the many short passages which he translated prove that he recognized the nature of its contents, and rightly appreciated its great value from a religious point of view; it is quite clear, however, that he never completeiy analysed a single chapter of it, and that he never translated any passage from it of considerable length. Had this remarkable man lived to examine the work further he would have seen that it was not a “Ritual.” 2 This collection of chapters was entitled “Todtenbuch" by Lepsius, in 1842, and by the name “ BOOK OF THE DEAD” it is now

most generally known. Early The earliest publications of parts or whole copies of the printed

Book of the Dead were made by Cadet (J. Marc), Copie copies of the Book figurée d'un rouleau de Papyrus, trouvé à Thèbes, dans un

tombeau des Rois, Strassburg, 1805; Fontana, Copie figurée d'un rouleau de papyrus trouvé en Egypte, publiée par Fontana et expliquée par Joseph de Hammer, Vienna, 1822 ; Sen

of the Dead.

1 In Revue Archéologique, N.S., tom. i. 1860, pp. 69-100, 234-249, 337–365.

? Dieser Codex ist kein Ritualbuch, wofiir es Champollion's Bezeichnung “Rituel Funéraire" zu erklären scheint ; es enthält keine Vorschriften fiir den Todtenkultus, keine Hymnen oder Gebete, welche von den Priestern etwa bei der Beerdigung gesprochen worden wären : sondern der Verstorbene ist selbst die handelnde Person darin, und der Text betrifft nur ihn und seine Begegnisse auf der langen Wanderung nach dem irdischen Tode. Es wird entweder erzählt und beschrieben, wohin er kommt, was er thut, was er hört und sieht, oder es sind die Gebete un / Anreden, die er selbst zu den verschiedlenen Göttern, zu welchen er gelangt, spricht. Lepsius, Vorwort (Todtenbuch), p. 3.

kowski, Exemplum Papyri Aegyptiacæ quam in peregrinatione sua repertam Universitati Cracoviensi dono dedit, Petropoli, 1826 ;" Young, Hieroglyphics, London, 1823, fol., plates I.-VI.; Hawkins, Papyri in the Hieroglyphic and Hieratic character from the Collection of the Earl of Belmore, London, 1843, fol., plates 1-8; and Rosellini, Breve notizia intorno un frammento di Papiro funebre egizio essistente nel ducale museo di Parma ; Parma, 1839, 8vo; Description de l’Egypte, ed. Jomard, Antiquités, tom. ii. The most important publication, however, was that of Lepsius in 1842, who under the title of Das Lepsius Todtenbuch der Aegypter, reproduced the complete text of the Turin

publishes a papyrus at Turin, which contained 165 chapters. The Papyrus. custom of inscribing chapters of Books of the Dead upon the walls of the sarcophagus chambers of tombs is as old as the Vth dynasty, but at that epoch large, well-spaced hieroglyphics, arranged between lines, occupy the walls conjointly with architectural decorations ;? towards the VIth dynasty the space allotted for decorative purposes becomes narrower, the hieroglyphics are smaller, and the inscriptions overflow into the passages and chambers, the walls of which, in earlier times, were left blank. The pyramids of the Vth and VIth dynasties which have inscriptions on their inner walls are those of Unås, Teta, Pepi I., Pepi II., and Seker-em-sa-f; this set of inscriptions is usually called the “Pyramid Texts,” The Pyra

mid Texts. and they have been published with a French translation by Maspero in Recueil de Travaux: Unás, tom. iii., pp. 177-224, and tom. iv., pp. 41-78; Tetà, tom. v., pp. 1-60; Pepi I., tom. v., , pp. 157-199, tom. vii., pp. 145-176, tom. viii., pp. 87-119; Pepi II., tom. ix., pp. 177-190, tom. x., pp. 1-28, tom. xi., pp. 1-30, tom. xii., pp. 53-95, 136-195.

During the XIth dynasty the custom of writing chapters of the Books of the Dead upon wooden coffins or sarcophagi became common; examples of the texts of this period, written upon coffins in the hieratic character, have been Texts in

scribed up on coffins.

| This book was published at the expense of the Academy of St. Petersburg, and never came into the market.

Maspero, La Religion Egyptienne, d'après les Pyramides de la Ve et de la V Dynastie (in Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, Paris, 1885, p. 124).

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