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head. Out of the cover there rises the sun with the head and arms of a man, and in each hand he holds + anch, “life.” (Papyrus of Ani, pl. 8.) On papyri and coffins of a later period the jars are shown arranged in a row under the bier. In the 151st chapter of the Book of the Dead the four gods are shown standing in the mummy chamber, one at each corner; the inscriptions which refer to them read:—

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Come have I that may be I in protection thy. Tie up [/] for thee

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beneath thee. Give I to thee head [thy] for ever.”

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Come have / that may be / in Arotection thy. Gas/her fogether /

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i an c. & SL* | Scè kesu - k saq - a ât - k ân - nã nek bones //y, collect I limbs shy, bring / for thee


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âb - k tä - a nek su her auset - f em. Xat - k heart thy, place I for thee it upon seat its in body thy,

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The inscriptions on the outsides of the jars, which are sometimes accompanied by inscribed figures of the four gods, vary considerably; some consist of a few words only, but others occupy several lines. These inscriptions show that each of the four gods was under the protection of a goddess ; thus Isis guarded Mesthä, Nephthys guarded Hāpi, Neith guarded Tuamäutef, and Selket or Serqet guarded Qebhsennus. The following are examples of the formulae inscribed on these jars : —

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met' àn Auset sam - a tet setep-à Speech of Says Isis, “Conquer I the foe, make / Isis.

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Osiris [is] the protection of Amseth, [for] Osiris [is] Aimseth.”

* These inscriptions are taken from the set of Canopic jars exhibited in the British Museum, Nos. 886 to 889; they were made for the commander of soldiers

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Neser-āb-Rā-em-xut, Psammetichus, son of Neith, son of Ta-tác. [] e

nub-hetep. See Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions, 1st Series, pl. 114. * Here sollow the name and titles of the deceased.

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make pass the night I of day every in making the protection of

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entet âm - a Sa Ausár sa
which is in me. The protection of Osiris [is] the protection of

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the variants for * |() being s Q () sexen and || 4 × ding ; frequently also they only contain the names and titles

of the deceased preceded by the words o Q dimXi Xer

“watchfully devoted to,” which are followed by the names of the four gods. Often the same formula is repeated on all four jars.


The chests, or coffers, which held Canopic jars were made of wood, and were usually painted black; they were fitted on a kind of sledge with two runners, the ends of which were rounded. They are about two feet square. On one end are traced in outline figures of Neith and Serqet, and on the other Isis and Nephthys ; on the one side are Mesthä and Hāpi, and on the other Tuamäutef and Qebhsennus. By the side of each god is inscribed the formula which is given in the 151st chapter of the Book of the Dead, and by the side of each goddess is inscribed the formula which is found on Canopic vases. (Excellent examples of chests on sledges are Nos. 8543a, and 85436, 3rd Egyptian Room, British Museum.) The inside of the chest is divided into four equal spaces by wooden partitions, and in each stood a jar. The use of such

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Variant readings.

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