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volume contains the text" and vignettes which were ably drawn by Madame Naville, and the second contains the variants. In a small quarto volume published a few months later, we have four chapters in which are discussed the Theban edition of the Book of the Dead, its history, its importance and the manner in which it was written; the description of the texts used by M. Naville, remarks on each chapter of the Book of the Dead, and a list of the chapters in hieroglyphics. The texts of the Theban recension contain many corrupt readings, but it is of the greatest importance to have the material at hand from which a critical edition may one day be made, and M. Naville has rendered invaluable service to the science of Egyptology by bringing it together.” Among the most valuable publications of texts of the Theban recension of the Book of the Dead must be mentioned, Photographs of the Papyrus of Nebseni" in the British Museum, 1876, fol. ; Facsimile of the Papyrus of Ani (published by the Trustees of the British Museum, 1890, fol.); Papyrus Fundraire de Nebset, ed. Pierret, 1872; and the papyrus of Shuti-Qenna, by Leemans, Papyrus Egyptien Funeraire Hieroglyphique du Musée d Leide, 1882, Livraison 5, Part III. A useful example of a hieroglyphic text of the Book of the Dead not earlier than the XXVIth dynasty, is that which Lepsius published in 1842 from a papyrus in Turin; the text is full of blunders and difficulties but, notwithstanding this fact, the work is a standard one for reference, and is of considerable value. Of hieratic texts belonging to a period subsequent to the XXVIth dynasty, the copy published by De Rougé is an excellent example." An English translation of the Book of the Dead was published by Birch in the English edition of Bunsen's Egypt's Place in Universal History, Vol. V, pp. 161–333, and a French translation by Pierret, entitled Le Livre des Morts des Anciems
* M. Naville bases his text chiefly upon British Museum Papyrus 9,900, and the papyri which he calls Ca and Pb.
* See the review of this work by Maspero in Revue de l’Aistoire des Aeligions, Paris, 1887, pp. 263-315.
* B.M. No. 9900.
* Rituel Fundraire des Anciens Egyptiens, Paris, 1861, fol.
Recent printed copies of texts.
Translations of the Book of the Dead.
Antiquity of the Book of the Dead.
Egyptiems, appeared in Paris, in 1882; both these were, how-
130th chapter was as old as Hesep-ti, ¥, E= | the
fifth king of the Ist dynasty; the 64th chapter is variously stated to belong to the time of this king and to that of Men-kau-Ră (Mycerinus) of the IVth dynasty." The 178th chapter must also be at least as old as the time of this last king, because it is inscribed on the cover of his wooden coffin, which is now preserved in the British Museum (1st Egyptian Room, No. 6647).” The oldest chapters appear to have been composed at Heliopolis, the great sanctuary and home of religious learning in Egypt, which was to the
' A complete list of the words in this papyrus is to be sound in Lieblein, Index Alphabétique, Paris, 1875.
* The Chapter of the Pillow, Aeg. Zeit., 1868, p. 52; the Chapter of the Heart, ibid., 1880, p. 56 ; and the Chapter of the Tie, ibid.
* Le Chapitre de la Boucle, in Mémoire sur quelques Papyrus du Zorrore, Paris, 1875.
* Les yeux d'Isorus, Paris, 1874.
* Rituel suméraire Egyptiem, Paris, 1876.
* Etudes Egyptologiques, p. 85.
7 Estratto da! Volume V/// delle A/emorie de/la R. Accademia dei Zince, Torino, 1882 and 1890.
* Naville, Einleitung, p. 31.
* I am aware that doubts have been thrown upon the age of this cover by a French writer, but it seems to me that the appearance and condition of the wood preclude any possibility of the theory that this cover was “restored ” at a later period of Egyptian history being correct.
Egyptians what Jerusalem was to the Jews and Mecca is to
Egyptian is E 2}s [T] Ş. opert em hru, which is generally translated by “coming forth, or going out, by day;” this was probably only a conventional name, and may account for the difficulty which scholars have had in agreeing
spirit.” (Naville, Einleitung, p. 24.) The author of the Book
Egyptian name of the Book of the Dead.
1 A Theban papyrus never contains more than ninety chapters.
* Esist aber auch eine unrichtige Vorstellung, dass dieses Buch ein einziges Ganzes, eine in sich abgeschlossene von Ansang bis Ende fort schreitende Beschreibung der Seelenwanderung sei, welche von einem Verfasser so und in dieser Ausdehnung herrühre. Es ist vielmehr eine Sammlung verschiedener für sich bestehender Abschnitte, die sich auf die Zukunft der Seele beziehen, unter denen einzelne mehr oder minder wichtige Stellen einnehmen, auch im Allgemeinen nach einer gewissen Regel, die aber nicht immer unverbrüchlich ist, angeordnet sind. Lepsius.
* This subject is discussed by Lepsius in the Worwort (p. 5) to his edition of the Todtenbuch.
B. M. P
The object of the Book of the Dead.
Materials of which pillows are made.
Ornamentation of pillows.
to prevail. It contains texts which were ordered to be inscribed upon amulets and bandages for the benefit of the dead; it contains a plan of the mummy chamber and the arrangement of certain pieces of furniture in it; it contains the text of the confession of the deceased in the presence of the fortytwo assessors, and the scene of the weighing of the heart in the judgment hall of Osiris; it has a representation of the Elysian Fields, etc. In our limited space here it is impossible to give the briefest summary of the chapters of the Book of the Dead and their contents; the above notes are only intended to indicate the best books and chief authorities on a work which is so often referred to in these pages.
The pillows x: which the Egyptians were accustomed to put under the heads of mummies were made of wood (sycamore generally), granite, alabaster and calcareous stone. They vary from six to ten inches in height, and are often made in three pieces, viz., the curved neck-piece, the column and base. The column is usually round or square, and the base is oblong. The neck-piece is sometimes supported by two columns or pillars, fluted (B.M. No. 17,102), but it may be joined to the base by six supports (B.M. No. 2543), or even by twenty-one (B.M. No. 18, 155). Pillows are made also in the shape of animals, e.g., B.M. No. 20,753, which is in the shape of a stag, the horns being curved downwards to form the neck-piece. Neck-pieces and columns are sometimes ornamented with ivory studs (B.M. No. 2541). The base is frequently dispensed with, and the supports are made in the form of the necks of ducks, the ends terminating in their heads and beaks. Such examples have usually the ends of the neck-piece ornamented with carvings of figures of the god Bes (B.M. No. 18,156), and sometimes with grotesque figures (apes?) wearing plumes, and being led along by chains (B.M. No. 2256c). Such animals greatly resemble those represented on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II. The column of a wooden pillow is ornamented in various ways, and the name of the deceased is often written upon it in hieratic or hieroglyphics. One example (B.M. No. 2529a) is inscribed with lion