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Nephthys, and other gods of the dead. The inscriptions
sometimes resemble those found on chests for Canopic jars,
but frequently they contain prayers in which the deceased
entreats the gods to give him gifts of cakes, bread, beer, wine,
ducks, oxen, wax, oil, bandages, etc., etc. Such inscriptions
are at times very brief, at others they cover the whole box.
An interesting class of sepulchral boxes comes from
Ahmim, the ancient Panopolis, which deserves special
mention. The largest of them in the British Museum (No.
18,210) is 34 feet long and 3 feet high. Each side tapers
slightly towards the top, and is in the shape of a pylon.
The hollow cornice is ornamented with yellow, black, and
red lines upon a white ground. Beneath it are two rows of

ornaments: the first is formed by §§§ and the Second by **** repeated several times. Beneath each line

is a row of five-rayed stars Skyk Skyk sk. The front of the box is ornamented with and uraei wearing disks sh and a winged disk Soz. Behind is a hawk upon a pedestal, before which is an altar with offerings. On the right hand side is Thoth with both hands raised, pouring out a libation; and on the left is a hawk-headed deity with both hands raised also pouring out a libation. On the back of the box is a

hawk, with extended wings, and sceptres }. On the right

hand side of the box is a figure of the deceased, kneeling, having his left hand raised, and above him are two cartouches

[[] Behind him are three jackal-headed deities, each having his

left arm raised, while his right hand is clenched and laid upon his stomach. On the left hand side of the box the deceased is represented in the same attitude, and behind him are three hawk-headed deities. These six gods form the vignettes of the 112th and I 13th chapters of the Book of the Dead ; the hawk-headed were called Horus, Mesthā, and Hāpi, and the jackal-headed Horus, Tuamäutes and Qebhsennuf; they are figured in Lanzone, Dizionario, Tav. xxvi. In two sides of the box are two pairs of rectangular openings about six inches from each end ; ' the use of these is unknown to me.

* For the description of a similar box see my article in Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch., 1886, pp. 120-122.

Boxes from Akhmim. Loaves of bread in the shape of cones.

Use of


This name is given to a large number of burnt terra-cotta conical objects which are found near tombs chiefly at Thebes, in the districts called ‘Asāsif and Kūrnah; they were used from the XIth to the XXVIth dynasties. They vary in size, but the ordinary length is ten inches, and the diameter three inches. The face, or flat part, of the cone at its thickest end contains inscriptions in relief which record the name and titles of the person in whose tomb they were found; the inscriptions appear to have been made by a stamp with the characters

incuse. The inscribed end of the cone is variously coloured

blue, red, or white. Dr. Birch thought” that they were used
for working into ornamental architecture, or to mark the sites
of sepulchres; it is more probable, however, that they are
merely models of bread or cakes which were placed in the

tomb M M. It is not likely that they were seals, because they

have been found of a rectangular shape with several copies of
the same inscription stamped upon them.


Stelae is the name given to the tablets of granite, calcareous stone, wood, or faience, which the Egyptians used in large numbers for inscribing with decrees and historical records of the achievements of kings, biographical notices of eminent officials, priests, and private persons, hymns to Rā and other gods, and notices of any events of importance. The greater number, however, of those which have been found belong to the class called sepulchral, and are inscribed with the names and titles of deceased persons, their pedigrees, and the principal events in—their lives. They were placed inside tombs, either in the corridor leading to the mummy chamber, or at the door, or at the foot or the head of the bier, or let into the wall; sometimes they are rectangular and sometimes they are rounded at the top. The styles of stelae, the arrangement of the scenes upon them, and the inscriptions, vary with

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Stelae of

' Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, iii. p. 437.


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