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a different coloured substance; on one side is a full-face figure of Bes, and on the other an ape. It came from Dér el-bahari.
A set of four or more kohl tubes were also formed by the compartments of a wooden box which was generally inlaid with ivory. The studs in kohl tubes were used for fastening the cover. The stick with which the kohl was applied to the eyes was The Kohl made of wood, bronze, glass, etc., and was thicker and more stick. rounded at one end than at the other. The thick end was moistened, and dipped in the powder in the tube, and then drawn along the eyelid; the stick generally remained in the tube, but often a special cavity, either between or behind the tubes, was prepared for it. The black powder in the tube was called in Egyptian
certas, corks.g., Arab. J&S, whence the word Kohl, Gr. a Tippu, stibium ; it seems to have been the sesquisulphuret
of antimony, but sulphide of lead, oxide of copper, j. black
oxide of manganese, and other powdered substances were also used. The act of painting the eyes with kohl was called
o o The custom of painting the eyelids, or the parts immediately under them, is contemporary with the earliest dynasties,
Alabaster vases of
and we know that in the XIIth dynasty" mestchem was brought from the land of Absha, by people of the Aāmu, as an acceptable gift to the king of Egypt. This custom seems to have been common all over the East, and it will be remembered that Jezebel “set her eyes in stibium” (Toy TE, Con 2 Kings ix. 30), and that the daughter of Zion was told that her lovers would seek her life, even though “she rent asunder her eyes with stibium,” in allusion to the wide open appearance which stibium gives to women's eyes in the East.
Oils, unguents, scents, etc., were kept in alabaster, diorite and porphyry jars, or vases, of various shapes, Ö, Ü, Ö, Ü § WI7. Sets of alabaster jars and flat vessels were arranged on a table in the tomb, and sometimes contained unguents, sweetmeats, etc., and sometimes were merely votive offerings. A fine example of a votive set in alabaster is (B.M. No. 4694) inscribed with the name Atena, from Abydos, which comprises a wide mouthed jar on a stand, five smaller jars with pointed ends, and four flat saucers, the whole standing on a circular table of the same material. The shapes of the jars are of great beauty, and the alabaster is of the finest. The custom of placing alabaster jars in tombs is, at least, as ancient as the IVth dynasty, and it lasted until the XXVIth dynasty; examples are known inscribed with the names of Unás (B.M. No. 4602), Pepi I. (B.M. No. 22559), Mentuem-sa-f (B.M. No. 4493), Amāsis I. (B.M. No. 4671 a), Thothmes III. (B.M. No. 4498), Amenophis II. (B.M. No. 4672), Rameses II. (B.M. No. 2880), Queen Amenártās (B.M. No. 4701), etc.
NECKLACES, RINGS, BRACELETS, ETC.
Judging by the enormous quantity of beads which are found in Egyptian tombs, Egyptian ladies must have thought very highly of the necklace as an ornament. Beads are of all shapes, round, rectangular, oval, and oblong, and were made of
* In the sixth year of Usertsen II. The scene of the presentation of the mes/chem is painted on the walls of the tomb of Chnemu-hetep at Beni-Hasān; see Lepsius, Denkmäler, II. ff. 131-133.
2 Toy Then wnpno Jeremiah iv. 30.
mother-of-emerald, carnelian, agate, lapis-lazuli, amethyst,
Scarab, or Scarabaeus,' is the name given by Egyptologists to the myriads of models of a certain beetle, which are found in mummies and tombs, and in the ruins of temples and other buildings in Egypt and other countries, the inhabitants
| Scarab, from the Greek okápagoc, or a kapáBeioc, perhaps a transcription of the Latin scarabaeus; compare 6m váptov, a transcription of denarius. The Copts called * ~ *
this beetle 62. Xotkc, and the Arabs “...s-, plur. U-3U.-,
• 2 * Q, ~ * .* wo Ja-, plur. co- and ty” plur. to: See also Payne Smith, Thes. Syr., col. 1188, and Duval, Lex. Syr., col. 714.
* The old plural scarabees we find in “You are scarabees that batten in dung.” Elder Brother, Beaumont and Fletcher.
Description of Egyptian beetle.
Habits of the Egyptian beetle.
of which from a remote period had trading and other rela-
considers the species which he has named Ateuchus Aegyptiorum, or j\tokáv6apos, and which is of a fine greenish colour, as that which especially engaged the attention of the early Egyptians; and Dr. G. W. Clarke affirms that it is eaten by the women of Egypt because it is considered an emblem of fertility. Horapollo, and other' ancient writers, state that a female scarabaeus does not exist. According to Horapollo (ed. Leemans, p. 11), a scarabaeus denotes an only begotten,” generation, father, world, and man. It represents an only begotten, because the scarabaeus is a creature self-produced, being unconceived by a female. The male, when desirous of procreating, takes some ox dung, and shapes it into a spherical form like the world. He next rolls it from east to west, looking himself towards the east. Having dug a hole, he buries it in it for twenty-eight days; on the twenty-ninth day he opens the ball, and throws it into the water, and from it the scarabaei come forth. The idea of generation arises from its supposed acts. The scarabaeus denotes a father because it is engendered by a father only, and world because in its generation it is fashioned in the form of the world, and man because there is no female race among them. Every scarabaeus was also supposed to have thirty toes, corresponding with the thirty days' duration of the month.” Latreille thinks that the belief that one sex only existed among scarabaei arose from the fact that the females are exceedingly like the males, and that both sexes appear to divide the care of the preservation of their offspring equally between them.
" 'O Káv6apog á0mAv Šoć w łort, Aelian, De Matura Animal.., x. xv. ed. Didot, p. 172, Káv6apoc Yap träç diffinv, Porphyry, De Abstinentia, iv. 9, ed. Didot, p. 74.
2 For the word scarabeus applied to Christ compare, “Vermis in cruce : scarabeus in cruce: et bonus vermis qui haesit in ligno bonus scarabeus qui clamavit & ligno. Quid clamavit? Domine, ne statuas illis hoc peccatum. Clamavit latroni: Hodie mecum eris in paradiso. Clamavit quasi scarabeus : Deus, Deus meus, quare me dereliquisti f Et bonus scarabeus quilutum corporis nostri ante informe ac pigrum virtutum versabat vestigiis : bonus scarabeus, qui de stercore erigit pauperem.” See the exposition of St. Luke, by Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (Opera, Paris edition, 1686, tom. I. col. 1528, No. 113).
* “En comptant pour un doigt chaque article des tarses, on reconnaitra que cet insecte avait été bien attentivement examiné.” Mulsant, Histoire Masurelle des Coléoptères de France, Lamellicornes; Paris, 1842, p. 48.
Description of the beetle by Horapollo.