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a different coloured substance; on one side is a full-face figure of Bes, and on the other an ape. It came from Dér el-bahari.

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A set of four or more kohl tubes were also formed by the compartments of a wooden box which was generally inlaid with ivory. The studs in kohl tubes were used for fastening the cover. The stick with which the kohl was applied to the eyes was The Kohl made of wood, bronze, glass, etc., and was thicker and more stick. rounded at one end than at the other. The thick end was moistened, and dipped in the powder in the tube, and then drawn along the eyelid; the stick generally remained in the tube, but often a special cavity, either between or behind the tubes, was prepared for it. The black powder in the tube was called in Egyptian

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certas, corks.g., Arab. J&S, whence the word Kohl, Gr. a Tippu, stibium ; it seems to have been the sesquisulphuret

of antimony, but sulphide of lead, oxide of copper, j. black

oxide of manganese, and other powdered substances were also used. The act of painting the eyes with kohl was called

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o o The custom of painting the eyelids, or the parts immediately under them, is contemporary with the earliest dynasties,

of use
of eye-

Alabaster vases of


and we know that in the XIIth dynasty" mestchem was brought from the land of Absha, by people of the Aāmu, as an acceptable gift to the king of Egypt. This custom seems to have been common all over the East, and it will be remembered that Jezebel “set her eyes in stibium” (Toy TE, Con 2 Kings ix. 30), and that the daughter of Zion was told that her lovers would seek her life, even though “she rent asunder her eyes with stibium,” in allusion to the wide open appearance which stibium gives to women's eyes in the East.

Oils, unguents, scents, etc., were kept in alabaster, diorite and porphyry jars, or vases, of various shapes, Ö, Ü, Ö, Ü § WI7. Sets of alabaster jars and flat vessels were arranged on a table in the tomb, and sometimes contained unguents, sweetmeats, etc., and sometimes were merely votive offerings. A fine example of a votive set in alabaster is (B.M. No. 4694) inscribed with the name Atena, from Abydos, which comprises a wide mouthed jar on a stand, five smaller jars with pointed ends, and four flat saucers, the whole standing on a circular table of the same material. The shapes of the jars are of great beauty, and the alabaster is of the finest. The custom of placing alabaster jars in tombs is, at least, as ancient as the IVth dynasty, and it lasted until the XXVIth dynasty; examples are known inscribed with the names of Unás (B.M. No. 4602), Pepi I. (B.M. No. 22559), Mentuem-sa-f (B.M. No. 4493), Amāsis I. (B.M. No. 4671 a), Thothmes III. (B.M. No. 4498), Amenophis II. (B.M. No. 4672), Rameses II. (B.M. No. 2880), Queen Amenártās (B.M. No. 4701), etc.


Judging by the enormous quantity of beads which are found in Egyptian tombs, Egyptian ladies must have thought very highly of the necklace as an ornament. Beads are of all shapes, round, rectangular, oval, and oblong, and were made of

* In the sixth year of Usertsen II. The scene of the presentation of the mes/chem is painted on the walls of the tomb of Chnemu-hetep at Beni-Hasān; see Lepsius, Denkmäler, II. ff. 131-133.

2 Toy Then wnpno Jeremiah iv. 30.

mother-of-emerald, carnelian, agate, lapis-lazuli, amethyst,
rock crystal, onyx, jasper, garnet, gold, silver, glass, faience,
clay, and straw. The necklace was ornamented with pendants
made in the form of figures of the gods, or of animals sacred
to them, or of amulets to which magical powers were attri-
buted. Each kind of stone was supposed to possess special
properties, and the Egyptians arranged their necklaces in
such a way that the wearer was supposed to be protected
from the attack of all evil powers and baneful beasts. Breasts
of mummies and mummy cases are painted in imitation
of rows of beads of various precious stones, or of collars
made of beads, interspersed with pendants in the shape of
flowers, etc.
Rings were made of gold, silver, bronze, precious stones or
fasence; sometimes the bezels were solid and did not move,
sometimes they were inlaid with scarabs, inscribed with various
devices, or the name of the wearer, and revolved. During the
XVIIIth dynasty, a very pretty class of ring was made at
Tell el-Amarna, in blue, green, and purple glazed faience;
examples are very numerous, and every Egyptian collection
of importance contains several.
Bracelets were made of gold or silver, and were at times
inlaid with precious stones and coloured paste; after the
XXVIth dynasty the ends of bracelets, owing to Phoenician
influence, terminated in lions' heads.


Scarab, or Scarabaeus,' is the name given by Egyptologists to the myriads of models of a certain beetle, which are found in mummies and tombs, and in the ruins of temples and other buildings in Egypt and other countries, the inhabitants

Egyptian jewellery.

| Scarab, from the Greek okápagoc, or a kapáBeioc, perhaps a transcription of the Latin scarabaeus; compare 6m váptov, a transcription of denarius. The Copts called * ~ *

this beetle 62. Xotkc, and the Arabs “...s-, plur. U-3U.-,

2 * Q, ~ * .* wo Ja-, plur. co- and ty” plur. to: See also Payne Smith, Thes. Syr., col. 1188, and Duval, Lex. Syr., col. 714.

* The old plural scarabees we find in “You are scarabees that batten in dung.” Elder Brother, Beaumont and Fletcher.

Description of Egyptian beetle.

Habits of the Egyptian beetle.

of which from a remote period had trading and other rela-
tions with the Egyptians. The beetle which was copied
by the Egyptians in this manner belongs to the family called
by naturalists Scarabaeidae (Coprophagi), of which the Scara-
bacus sacer is the type. These insects compose a very
numerous group of dung-feeding Lamellicorns, of which,
however, the majority are inhabitants of tropical countries.
The species are generally of a black hue ; but amongst them
are to be found some adorned with the richest metallic
colours. A remarkable peculiarity exists in the structure
and situation of the hind legs, which are placed so near the
extremity of the body, and so far from each other, as to give
the insect a most extraordinary appearance when walking.
This peculiar formation is, nevertheless, particularly service-
able to its possessors in rolling the balls of excrementitious
matter in which they enclose their eggs; whence these
insects were named by the first naturalists Pilulariae. These
balls are at first irregular and soft, but, by degrees, and
during the process of rolling along, become rounded and
harder; they are propelled by means of the hind legs.
Sometimes these balls are an inch and a half, or two inches
in diameter, and in rolling them along the beetles stand
almost upon their heads, with the heads turned from the
balls. These manoeuvres have for their object the burying
of the balls in holes, which the insects have previously dug
for their reception ; and it is upon the dung thus deposited
that the larvae, when hatched, feed. It does not appear that
these beetles have the instinct to distinguish their own balls,
as they will seize upon those belonging to another, in case
they have lost their own ; and, indeed, it is said that several
of them occasionally assist in rolling the same ball. The
males as well as the females assist in rolling the pellets.
They fly during the hottest part of the day." Latreille, in
the Appendix to Cailliaud's Voyage d Méroe, Paris, 1823–27,”
* See J. O. Westwood, An Introduction to the Modern Classification of
Insects ; London, 1839, Vol. I. p. 204 f.
* Tom. ii. p. 311. “Cet insecte est d'un vert parfois éclatant; son corselet
est nuancé d'une teinte cuivreuse à reflet métallique.” Compare AElian, De

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considers the species which he has named Ateuchus Aegyptiorum, or j\tokáv6apos, and which is of a fine greenish colour, as that which especially engaged the attention of the early Egyptians; and Dr. G. W. Clarke affirms that it is eaten by the women of Egypt because it is considered an emblem of fertility. Horapollo, and other' ancient writers, state that a female scarabaeus does not exist. According to Horapollo (ed. Leemans, p. 11), a scarabaeus denotes an only begotten,” generation, father, world, and man. It represents an only begotten, because the scarabaeus is a creature self-produced, being unconceived by a female. The male, when desirous of procreating, takes some ox dung, and shapes it into a spherical form like the world. He next rolls it from east to west, looking himself towards the east. Having dug a hole, he buries it in it for twenty-eight days; on the twenty-ninth day he opens the ball, and throws it into the water, and from it the scarabaei come forth. The idea of generation arises from its supposed acts. The scarabaeus denotes a father because it is engendered by a father only, and world because in its generation it is fashioned in the form of the world, and man because there is no female race among them. Every scarabaeus was also supposed to have thirty toes, corresponding with the thirty days' duration of the month.” Latreille thinks that the belief that one sex only existed among scarabaei arose from the fact that the females are exceedingly like the males, and that both sexes appear to divide the care of the preservation of their offspring equally between them.

" 'O Káv6apog á0mAv Šoć w łort, Aelian, De Matura Animal.., x. xv. ed. Didot, p. 172, Káv6apoc Yap träç diffinv, Porphyry, De Abstinentia, iv. 9, ed. Didot, p. 74.

2 For the word scarabeus applied to Christ compare, “Vermis in cruce : scarabeus in cruce: et bonus vermis qui haesit in ligno bonus scarabeus qui clamavit & ligno. Quid clamavit? Domine, ne statuas illis hoc peccatum. Clamavit latroni: Hodie mecum eris in paradiso. Clamavit quasi scarabeus : Deus, Deus meus, quare me dereliquisti f Et bonus scarabeus quilutum corporis nostri ante informe ac pigrum virtutum versabat vestigiis : bonus scarabeus, qui de stercore erigit pauperem.” See the exposition of St. Luke, by Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (Opera, Paris edition, 1686, tom. I. col. 1528, No. 113).

* “En comptant pour un doigt chaque article des tarses, on reconnaitra que cet insecte avait été bien attentivement examiné.” Mulsant, Histoire Masurelle des Coléoptères de France, Lamellicornes; Paris, 1842, p. 48.

Description of the beetle by Horapollo.

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