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Egyptian The Egyptians called the scarabaeus § |%. Che

name for the beetle. perd, and the god whom this insect represented was called

§ =|o Cheperd. This god usually wears a beetle on

his head, and sometimes he has a beetle, with or without outstretched wings, in the place of a head." The god The Cheperá was the “father of the gods,” and the creator of all ..", things in heaven and earth. He made himself out of the

Cheperä, matter which he himself produced. He was identified with the rising sun, and thus typified resurrection and new birth

generally. The word Q which is usually translated <-->

“to exist, to become, to make,” also means “to roll,” and the “roller,” or “revolver,” was a fitting name for the sun, according to the Egyptian ideas of that luminary. The

Q D | abstract noun 3|| cheperu, may very well be

rendered by “evolutions.” Classes of Scarabs may, for convenience of consideration, be divided scarab. into three classes:–1. Funereal scarabs ; 2. Scarabs worn for ornament; 3. Historical scarabs. Of the first class the greater number found measure from half to two inches in length, and they are made generally of faïence or steatite, > glazed blue or green ; granite, basalt, jasper, amethyst, lapis. lazuli, ruby, carnelian, and in the Roman period glass also, are often used. Upon the flat base of the scarab the Egyptians engraved the names of gods, kings, priests, officials, private persons, monograms, and floral and other devices. Sometimes the base of the scarab takes the form * of a heart, and sometimes the scarab is united with the u'tat o or eye of Horus; it is also found united with a frog, the emblem of “myriads” and of “revivification.” Rarely the back of the scarab is ornamented with a pattern made up of a number of small scarabs. Such small scarabs were set in rings, and placed upon the fingers of the dead, or were wrapped up in the linen bandages with which the * mummy was swathed over the heart. They represented the (* of the Egyptians in the revivification of the body, and (§ the renewed life after death, which was typified by the) un, who renewed his life daily. Among funereal scarabs must be mentioned those of ...? green basalt, which were specially made to be laid upon funeral the breasts of mummies. Of this class there are many scarab. varieties, but the form most approved by the Egyptians seems to have consisted of a scarab of fine, hard basalt, let into a gold border, to which was attached a fine gold wire for hanging round the neck. The folds of the wings of the beetles were indicated either by lines of gold painted on the back, or by pieces of gold inlaid therein. Occasionally, the scarab itself is let into a mount of solid gold (B.M. No. 7876), and sometimes the scarab is joined to a heart, and pierced for suspension, the heart being ornamented with hieroglyphics meaning “life, stability, and protection” The chapters of the heart.

* See Lanzone, Dizionario, pl. cccxxix.

##$ (B.M. No. 7925). On the back of the scarab we at times have a figure of a bennu bird and the inscription H C.

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at others the boat of the Sun log, ut'ats *ś, the bennu or phoenix o, and Rä ob.M. No. 7883); and

sometimes the scarab is human-headed (B.M. Nos. 15,516 and 7999). One instance is known where the back of the scarab is ornamented with incised figures of Greek deities (B.M. No. 7966). In late times this class of scarab was made of blue and green faience, and inserted in pectorals of the same material, upon which were painted the boat of the sun, and figures of Isis and Nephthys, one at each end of the boat; the scarab occupied the middle of the boat (B.M. o. Nos. 7864 and 7865). The bases of large funereal scarabs were usually inscribed with the text of the 30th chapter of the Book of the Dead, but this was not always the case. Some scarabs have only scenes of the deceased adoring Osiris (B.M. No. 7931), and others figures of Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys (B.M. Nos. 7930, 15,500 and 15,507). At times Descri the inscriptions are merely written with gold or ink (B.M. . Nos. 7915 and 15,518). As such scarabs formed part of scarabs. the stock-in-trade of the Egyptian undertaker, the names

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of the persons with whom they were buried are not found inscribed upon them, although blank spaces are left (B.M. No. 7877); frequently scarabs have neither figures nor inscriptions upon their bases. A remarkable example of funereal scarab is B.M. No. 18, 190, which was taken from the mummy of Thothmes III., found at Dér el-Bahari. This object is made of steatite, glazed a greenish (purple in some places) colour. A frame of gold runs round the base, the two sides of which are joined by a band of the same metal across the back; a thin layer of gold covered the back, but parts of this are hidden by the remains of the mummy cloth which adhere to it. The base is inscribed with a figures of Thothmes III., kneeling ; on his

head is the crown 4}. in the right hand he holds the

whip s\ , and with the left he is making an offering. Before him is a dog (?) seated, and behind him a hawk. Above is

the sign I nefer, and the legend “Rä-men-cheper, triumphant

before the gods for ever.” (O to § le * Til Fl

The surface of the base was covered with a layer of gold,
parts of which still remain. This scarab is 3 inches long. On
the upper end of the gold frame was a loop by which the
scarab, by means of a chain, was attached to a bronze collar
round the neck of the mummy.
The chapter from the Book of the Dead called 30B by
M. Naville (Das Aegyptische Todtenbuch, pl. xliii.), engraved
upon scarabs, is one of a series of seven chapters, relating to
the heart, which are entitled :-
Chap. 26. Chapter of giving a heart to N." in the under-
Chaps. 27, 28 and 29. Chapter of not allowing his heart
to be carried off from him in the underworld.
Chap. 29B. Another chapter of a heart of carnelian.
Chaps. 3OA and 3OB. Chapter of not allowing to be
repulsed the heart of N. in the underworld. According to a
papyrus in Berlin, Ba in Naville's edition, chap. 26 is

entitled “Chapter of a heart of lapis-lazuli ( Q_ ] = i

* N. = name of the person for whom the scarab or papyrus was made.

chesbet)”; chap. 27, “Chapter of a heart of opal (?), (of 1 * meshem)”; chap. 29 B, “Chapter of a heart of carnelian (?) (s 4. 3 sehert)"; and chap. 30B, “ Chapter of a - co o xx heart of green jasper (~$:. meht).” The most important of these chapters is the 30th, which exists in two different versions, called 30A and 30B, but it appears that the former was never inscribed upon scarabs. According to the rubric found in a papyrus at Parma (see Naville, Todtenbuch,” Bd. ii. bl. 99), this chapter was found during the reign of Mycerinus in Hermopolis, under the feet of the majesty of this god, by Heru-tá-tá-f his son.

This interesting text reads:—

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of met her Xeper en meh - f mesesbeb em chapter To be said over a scarab of green fasper bound round with o:

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upon a slab of steel of the south with the writing of the god

* Quoted by Birch in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1867, p 17.
* First published by Birch in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1867, p. 54.
* Z.e., the deceased.

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of the temples.

According to some copies of the 30th, or 64th chapter," at the end of which this statement is sometimes added, it was found during the reign of Hesep-ti, the fifth king of the first dynasty.

Chapter 30 B belongs to the Psychostasia, in which the heart of the dead man is weighed against the feather, |, emblematic of Law ; in the vignette which sometimes accompanies this chapter, the deceased is seen being weighed against his own heart, in the presence of Osiris, the pointer of the scales being watched by the cynocephalus ape of Thoth. The text of this chapter, found upon scarabs with many variants, is as follows:—”

The chapter of the heart.

o “ solos = < * ~

re en tenn ertät Xesef âb en
Chapter of not allowing to be repulsed the heart of
[Name] \ 7. n ~ * § wwwaava
- c=> |
em neter xert t’et - f âb - a en

Helo *} in the underworld. Says he, “O Heart mine of
* Goodwin, On a text of the Book of the Dead belonging to the Old Kingdom,

in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1866, p. 55; Lepsius, Das Todtenbuch, p. 12.
* Naville, Das Todtenbuch, bl. xliii.

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