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of the persons with whom they were buried are not found inscribed upon them, although blank spaces are left (B.M. No. 7877); frequently scarabs have neither figures nor inscriptions upon their bases. A remarkable example of funereal scarab is B.M. No. 18,190, which was taken from the mummy of Thothmes III., found at Dêr el-Bahari. This object is made of steatite, glazed a greenish (purple in some places) colour. A frame of gold runs round the base, the two sides of which are joined by a band of the same metal across the back; a thin layer of gold covered the back, but parts of this are hidden by the remains of the mummy cloth which adhere to it. The base is inscribed with a figures of Thothmes III., kneeling ; on his head is the crown, in the right hand he holds the whip A, and with the left he is making an offering. Before him is a dog (?) seated, and behind him a hawk. Above is the sign 5 nefer, and the legend

“Rā-men-cheper, triumphant before the gods for ever." The surface of the base was covered with a layer of gold, parts of which still remain. This scarab is 3 inches long. On the upper end of the gold frame was a loop by which the scarab, by means of a chain, was attached to a bronze collar round the neck of the mummy.

The chapter from the Book of the Dead called 30B by M. Naville (Das Aegyptische Todtenbuch, pl. xliii.), engraved upon scarabs, is one of a series of seven chapters, relating to the heart, which are entitled :

Chap. 26. Chapter of giving a heart to N.' in the underworld.

Chaps. 27, 28 and 29. Chapter of not allowing his heart to be carried off from him in the underworld.

Chap. 29B. Another chapter of a heart of carnelian.

Chaps. 30A and 30B. Chapter of not allowing to be repulsed the heart of N. in the underworld. According to a papyrus in Berlin, Ba in Naville's edition, chap. 26 is entitled “ Chapter of a heart of lapis-lazuli ()

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chesbet); chap. 27, “Chapter of a heart of opal (?), MAAL? neshem); chap. 29 B, “ Chapter of a heart of carnelian (?) (9 sehert)”; and chap. 30 B, “Chapter of a heart of green jasper (oad meht).The most important of these chapters is the 30th, which exists in two different versions, called 30A and 30B, but it appears that the former was never inscribed upon scarabs. According to the rubric found in a papyrus at Parma (see Naville, Todtenbuch, ' Bd. ii. bl. 99), this chapter was found during the reign of Mycerinus in Hermopolis, under the feet of the majesty of this god, by Heru-țā-țā-f his son.

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temples. According to some copies of the 30th, or 64th chapter, at the end of which this statement is sometimes added, it was found during the reign of Hesep-ti, the fifth king of the first dynasty.

Chapter 30 B belongs to the Psychostasia, in which the heart of the dead man is weighed against the feather, ß, emblematic of Law; in the vignette which sometimes accompanies this chapter, the deceased is seen being weighed against his own heart, in the presence of Osiris, the pointer of the scales being watched by the cynocephalus ape of Thoth. The text of this chapter, found upon scarabs with many variants, is as follows:

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1 Goodwin, On a text of the Book of the Dead belonging to the Ol Kingdoni, in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1866, p. 55; Lepsius, Das Todtenbuch, p. 12.

? Naville, Das Todtenbuch, bl. xliii.

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Scarabs worn for ornament.

The second class of scarabs, i.e., those worn for ornament, exists in many thousands. By an easy transition, the custom of placing scarabs on the bodies of the dead passed to the living, and men and women perhaps wore the scarab as a silent act of homage to the creator of the world, who was not only the god of the dead but of the living also. To attempt to describe this class of scarabs would be impossible in anything but a special work on the subject. The devices and inscriptions are very varied, but at present it is not possible to explain one half of them satisfactorily.

The third class of scarabs, i.e., the historical, appears to be confined to a series of four, extant in many copies, which were made during the reign of Amenophis III., to commemorate

Historical scarabs of Amenophis III.

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