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IV. The construction of the lake of Queen Thi in the eleventh year of the reign of Amenophis. The text of this scarab was first published in Rosellini, Monumenti Storici, tav. xliv. No. 2. It was partly translated by Rosellini, then by Hinks (in Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxi. Dublin, 1848, Sec. “Polite Literature,” On the age of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Manet/to, p. 7), and by Birch, Records of the Past, Vol. XII. p. 41. The text printed below is corrected from Stern's copy in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1887, p. 87, note 2. The scarab is dated in the first day, the third month of sowing *

* Hathor.

of the eleventh year of Amenophis III., { à o o If I 3.

The first few lines of the inscription containing the king's titles are the same as the beginning lines of the scarabs of the series. The making of the tank is described as follows:— I -Q- IEC Ú Historical *~ CA | No. 2S scarabs - - of Amenoutu hen-f àrit mer en suten hemt phis III. Ordered majesty his the making of a lake for the royal spouse,

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ări en hen-f heb tep Šet em Made majesty his festival of the entrance of the waters on

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Of the inscriptions found on scarabs by far the greater Inscrip

- - - t s number consists of the names of kings. Names of priests .

and ladies who took part in the services connected with the

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* Hathor.

ch * Stern | “g. # aten texen, “disk of saffron.”

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various gods are common enough ; so also are those of the
singers of Amen-Ră. Scarabs inscribed with the names of
kings are important historically, because sometimes they form
nearly the only memorials of kings and royal personages,
and they fill up gaps in the lists of kings of Egypt of whom,
otherwise, nothing would be known. The names of the kings
most commonly found are Thothmes III., Amenophis III.
and Rameses II., and of these that of Thothmes III. is the
commonest. The use of the scarab by the Egyptians to
denote the idea of resurrection is probably as old as their
settlement in the Nile Valley, and scarabs are found
inscribed with the names of nearly every king of every
dynasty, beginning with that of Mená, the first king of the
first dynasty, and ending with that of the Roman Emperor
The first published classification of scarabs was made by
the late Dr. Birch in his Catalogue of the collection of Egyptian
Antiquities at Alnwick Castle, pp. Io9–167, 236–242, in
which he described 565 objects of this class. The
arrangement he followed in this subdivision was:–1. Names
of mythological personages and emblems. 2. Historical
inscriptions, names of kings, and historical representations.
3. Titles of officers. In 1884, the Rev. W. J. Loftie published
his Essay of Scarabs,” which contained a description of his
collection * of 192 scarabs, inscribed with royal names, and
excellent drawings of each. His collection, like those of the
Museum of the Louvre and the British Museum, was arranged
chronologically;” the principle of the arrangement he ex-
plained in his interesting preface. In my Catalogue of the
Egyptian Collection of the Harrow School Museum,” pp. 14-29,
I gave a description of nearly one hundred and fifty scarabs,
and translations of most of the inscriptions. In 1888 a cata-
logue of the scarabs and scaraboids from Egypt, Kamiros, and

1 Printed by the Duke of Northumberland for private distribution, London,

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Tharros was published by Dr. A. S. Murray and Mr. Hamilton Smith, in their Catalogue of Gems, pp. 46–58. In 1889 Mr. Flinders Petrie published a collection of drawings of 2,363 scarabs, with a few pages of introduction. The idea of this work was excellent, but the plates should have contained a tolerably complete set of examples of scarabs, carefully indexed. The title Historical Scarabs was a misnomer, for the only, strictly speaking, historical scarabs known, the series of the four of Amenophis III., were omitted. Scarabs inscribed with certain kings' names were made and worn as much as a thousand years after the death of the kings whose names they bear. This fact is indisputable, and if any proof were required it is furnished by the scarabs dug up at Naucratis by Mr. Petrie. From the scarab-moulds found there, and the material from which they are made, and from the design and workmanship, it is clear that the scarabs of Naucratis are not older than the VIIth century B.C.; yet many of them bear the prenomens of Thothmes III., Seti I. and Rameses II.,” etc. As the paste of which these are made is identical with that of scarabs bearing the names of kings of the XXVIth dynasty, there is no possible doubt about this fact. Scarabs inscribed with the names of two kings furnish another proof. Thus in the British Museum, Nos. 4033 and 4035 bear the names of Thothmes III. and Seti I.; No. 16,580 bears the names of Thothmes I., Thothmes III., and Seti I. ; No. 17,126 (a plaque) bears the names of Thothmes III. and Rameses II. ; No. 17, 138 bears the names of Thothmes III. and Rameses III. ; No. 16,837 bears the names of Thothmes III. and Rameses IX. ; and No. 16,796 bears the names of Thothmes III. and Psammetichus. That scarabs of a late period are found in tombs of the VIth, XIIth and XVIIIth dynasties is not to be wondered at, for tombs were used over and over again for burial by families who lived hundreds of years after they were first hewn out, and who had no connexion whatever with the people who

* Historical Scarabs ; A series of Drawings from the Principal Collections. Arranged Chronologically. London, 1889.

* Maucratis, London, 1886, Plate XXXVII., No. 63, etc., Pl. XXXVIII., No. 182.

tence of


dating of

Chronological arrangement of nannes possible.

of Ialysos,

were first buried in them. When a scarab is found bound up
in a mummy, the date of which can be ascertained from the
inscriptions upon it, that scarab can be used with advantage
as an authority by which to compare other scarabs;" when,
however, a scarab is dug up with a lot of miscellaneous stuff
it is of little value for the purpose of comparison. From the
lowest depths of the VIth and XIIth dynasty tombs at Aswän,
scarabs have been dug up which could not have been a
day older than the XXVIth dynasty, if as old. In some of
these tombs, carefully closed with beautifully fitting blocks of
stone, were found also red terra-cotta jars inscribed in hieratic
which could not have been a day older than the XIXth
dynasty, yet the inscriptions on the walls proved beyond a
doubt that the tombs were made for officials who lived during
the XIIth dynasty. It must then be clearly understood that
the objects found in a tomb do not, necessarily, belong to the
period of the tomb itself, and all the evidence known points
to the fact that it is nearly impossible to arrange a collection
of scarabs chronologically, except so far as the order of the
names is concerned. Comparatively little is known about the
various local manufactures of scarabs, or of their characteris–
tics, and hundreds of examples of them exist which can
neither be read nor explained nor understood.
What has been said of the scarabs of Naucratis applies
equally to those found at Ialysos and Kamiros in Rhodes,
and at Tharros in Sardinia, places associated with the
Phoenicians or Carthaginians. At Ialysos, fasence and
steatite scarabs are rare. Of the three found there preserved
in the British Museum, two are steatite and one is of faïence.
One of the examples in steatite is fractured, whereby the
design or inscription is rendered illegible, and the other is

inscribed with s tet, emblem of stability, on each side of

which is an uraeus o The example in safence measures 1, inch in length, and is inscribed with the prenomen of Amen-hetep III., | G) § -> |. Scarabs are rare in Kamiros

* Such a scarab, however, may quite well be older than the mummy upon

which it is found.
* Brit. Mus. Reg. Nos. 72–3–15, 1 Io; 70–10–3, 130 and 131.

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