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building of temples to the sun are preserved. Fragments of
the country of Absha, brought a gift of eye-paint to
Chnemu-hetep, in whose tomb this interesting scene is depicted. Some writers have seen in this a representation of the visit of Jacob's sons to Egypt to buy corn, but there is no ground whatever for this opinion. Of the wars of this king nothing is known, and of his buildings only one mention is made, and that is on a slab in the temple of Ptah at Memphis. With the coming to the throne of Usertsen III. a new period of prosperity began for Egypt. He recognized very soon that the tribes of Nubia had to be put down with a
Egyptians strong hand, and he marched into that country, and did not conquer
leave it until he had wasted the land, destroyed the crops and Nubia,
carried off the cattle. In the labours of Usertsen III. to
or Wâdy Halfah, hence he went further south and built
ever, he himself was compelled to Icad an expedition into
In Amenemhāt III. we have the first Egyptian king who
seriously set to work to make the fullest possible use of the Ancient inundation of the Nile. At the fortresses which his predeirrigation
cessor Usertsen III. had established, he stationed officers to works in Egypt. record and report the increase of the Nile, and "runners"
must have conveyed the information to the king in Egypt.
Amenemhāt III. will, however, be best remembered as the
called the Fayyûm gooTa-she, “the land of the lake";
Pa-iumā. The Egyptian original of the name
mm mer-ur, "great
famous Labyrinth were situated in the eastern part of the Building district. The Labyrinth was also built by Amenemhāt III., of the
and is said by Herodotus (ii. 148) to have contained twelve Labyrinth.
courts, six facing the north, and six the south, and three
mm, and the stone
for building it seems to have been brought from the Valley of Hammāmāt. The copper mines in the mountains of Sinai were diligently worked during this reign.
Amenemhat IV. reigned conjointly with his sister Sebekneferu, and beyond continuing the mining operations of his ancestors he seems to have done nothing. We may see in collecting the results of the rule of the XIIth dynasty over Power of Egypt, that its kings had extended their sway about 250 the multh miles south of the first cataract, and that they had lost dynasty. nothing of their possessions either in the eastern desert or in the Sinaitic peninsula. Mighty public works like the Labyrinth and Lake Moeris had been successfully carried out, an active trade was carried on with the natives of Punt, and with the country to-day called Syria, and with the districts further east. Agriculture flourished, and the whole land was in a most prosperous condition. And if the living were well cared for, the dead were no less so. The tombs built for high Beauty of officials and gentlemen attest the care of the sorrowing tombs of relatives, while the sculptures and paintings employed to XIIth
dynasty. adorn them indicate that the artistic knowledge of the Egyptians had arrived at a very high pitch.
"Shepherd XV, Hyksos, 6
Kings." XVI, Hyksos,
XVII, from Thebes, 10 There are no monuments by which these figures can be checked, and there is no other authority for them besides Manetho. The Turin papyrus gives traces of 136 names for the period corresponding to that of the XIIIth and XIVth dynasties. Among the rulers of the XIIIth and XIVth dynasties were many who were not of royal descent. Semench-ka is known to us by his statues found at Tanis, and according to Mariette he seems to have been an officer who rebelled and then seated himself on the throne. Sebek.
hetep II. was the son of a private individual, and Neferhetep's parents appear not to have been royal. This latter king built largely at Abydos, and as a worshipper of the local gods he is represented at Konosso and the islands of the first cataract. Of Sebek-hetep III., brother of Sebekhetep II, Sebek-hetep IV., and Sebek-hetep V. little is known; of Sebek-hetep VI, the best memorials are the rock tombs at Asyūt. The names of many kings belonging to this period are known from the monuments, but a greater knowledge of the history of that time is necessary for arranging them in chronological order. It seems pretty certain that few of the kings reigned many years, and that the country was divided into a number of little states which were always at war with each other, and against whomsoever was king. Such a condition of things was, of course, highly favourable for a foreign invader, who would naturally be attracted by reports of the wealth of Egypt. The hardy tribes of desert dwellers, Semites and others, who crowded on the eastern and western borders of Egypt, delayed not to take advantage of the distracted and divided state of the country, and making a successful attack on the north-east provinces of the Delta, they pressed in, and having taken possession of Memphis, became masters of Egypt. Their attack would probably be rendered less difficult by the fact that a great many of the inhabitants of the Delta were of Semitic origin, their ancestors having settled there in the XIIth dynasty, and their opposition to their kinsmen would be, in consequence, less stubborn. The sole authority for the history of this invasion is Josephus, who, quoting Manetho, says, “There was a king of ours, whose name was Timaus. Under him it caine to pass, I know not how, that God was averse to us, and there came, after a surprising manner, men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts, and had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country, and with ease subdued it by force, yet without our hazarding a battle with them. So when they had gotten those that governed us under their power, they afterwards burnt down our cities, and demolished the temples of the gods, and used all the inhabitants after a most barbarous manner: nay, some they
Co-f - otslew, and led their children and their wives into slavery. At length they made one of themselves king, whose name was Salatis; he also lived at Memphis, and made both the upper and lower regions pay tribute, and left garrisons in places that were the most proper for them. He chiefly aimed to secure the eastern parts, as foreseeing that the Assyrians, who had there the greatest power, would be desirous of that kingdom and invade them ; and as he found in the Saite [Sethroite] Nomos a city very proper for his purpose, and which lay upon the Bubastic channel, but with regard to a certain theologic notion was called Avaris, this he rebuilt, and made very strong by the walls he built about it, and by a most numerous garrison of two hundred and forty thousand armed men whom he put into it to keep it. Thither Salatis came in summer time, partly to gather his corn and pay his soldiers their wages, and partly to exercise his armed men, and thereby to terrify foreigners. When this man had reigned thirteen years, after him reigned another whose name was Beon for forty-four years; after him reigned another, called Apachnas, thirty-six years and seven months: after him Apophis reigned sixty-one years, and then Jonias fifty years and one month; after all these reigned Assis forty-nine years and two months. “And these six were the first rulers among them, who were all along making war with the Egyptians, and were very desirous gradually to destroy them to the very roots. This whole nation was styled Hycsos, that is, “Shepherd-kings”; for the first syllable HYC, according to the sacred dialect, denotes a king, as is SOS, a shepherd—but this according to the ordinary dialect; and of these is compounded HYCSOs: but some say that these people were Arabians.” Now, in another copy it is said, that this word does not denote kings, but on the contrary, denotes Captive Shepherds, and this on account of the particle HYC; for that HYC, with the aspiration, in the Egyptian tongue again denotes SHEPHERDS, and that expressly also ; and this to me seems the more probable opinion, and more agreeable to ancient history. [But Manetho goes on]:-“These people whom we have before named kings, and called shepherds also, and their descendants,”