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ܝܐܘܨܪ ܐܪ̈ܪܐ in
ܚܠܘܛܐ ܘܐܟܠ ܐܢܘ
ܕܒ |.Heb) ܫܕܪ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ
Syriaca, tom. IV. p. 77, cap. 56. Bar-Hebraeus, commenting
on Psalm 1xxviii. 45, and referring to the words
(., na un any, he sent among them the gad-fy, LXX., 'Examéστειλεν εις αυτούς κυνόμυιαν), “he sent against them crowds of insects and they devoured them,” includes the scarab (bez's plur. , plur. ) creatures like dog-Alies, scorpions, ants, etc...
among noxious (ܟ̈ܫܘܫܝܳܬ݂ܳܐ .plurܨܚܰܟܫܽܘܫܬ݁ܳܐ ܕ݁ܚܰܟܫܽܘܫܶܐ .plur ܚܠܘܛܐ ܨܪܨܘܪܐ ܘܡܫ̈ܘܛܐ ܘܫܪ̈ܨܐ ܘܥܩܪ̈ܒܐ ܘܚܸܒ̈ܫܽܘܫܬܐ ܘܫܘܫ̈ܡܢܐ ܘܨܪܨܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܘܕܒ̈ܒܐ ܘܫܪܟܐ ܕܒ̈ܒܝ ܟܠܒ̈ܐ ܀
1. The Buckle or Tie This amulet, called by the Egyptians i 8 Bet, is one of the commonest objects found among collections of Egyptian amulets. It was most com. monly made of red jasper, carnelian, red porphyry, red glass or faïence, and sycamore wood; sometimes it was made entirely of gold, and sometimes, when it was made of substances other than gold, it was set in gold, or covered over with gold leaf. Buckles are usually uninscribed, but frequently when two or more are found together the 156th chapter of the Book of the Dead is engraved on them. The buckle was placed on the neck of the mummy, which it was supposed to protect; the red material of which it was made represented the blood of Isis. The formula which is inscribed on buckles reads :
I See Birch, The Amulet of the Tie, Aeg. Zeit., 1871, p. 13: and Maspero,
II. The set 1. This object, which represents a mason's The test of table and not a Nilometer, as a religious emblem symbolizes Osiris the lord of Țettu, great god of the underworld. The meaning of the word teț is "firmness, stability, preservation,” etc. The tet had on it sometimes the plumes, disk and horns, Q, and was painted on mummies and tombs. The amulet itself was placed on the neck of the mummy which it was supposed to protect. Iets are made of faïence, gold, wood gilded, carnelian, lapis-lazuli, and many other substances, although the rubric of the 155th chapter, of which I is the vignette, states that they are to be made of gold. This chapter is entitled :
хех “Chapter of a tet of gold placed
the neck of
к O resting of heart, place thou thyself upon place thy.
it - nå Come 1,
Papyrus of Ani, pl. 33; the text given by Naville, Das Todtenbuch, Bl. clxxx., differs from this.
The Vul. ture of Isis.
This chapter was to be " said over a țet of gold, made of the heart of sycamore wood, which was to be placed on the neck of the mummy.” The țeț enabled the deceased to enter in through the gates of the underworld, and if this chapter were known by him, he would "rise up as a perfect soul in the underworld, he would not be repulsed at the gates there, and cakes would be given to him, and joints of meat from the altars of Rā.”
III. The Vulture 157th chapter of the Book of the Dead, a vulture of gold was to be placed on the neck of the mummy on the day of the funeral ; it was supposed to carry with it the protection of “Mother” Isis. The chapter reads, “ Isis has come, she has gone round about the towns, she has sought out the hidden places of Horus in his coming out from the swamp of papyrus reeds. His son has stood against evil, he has come into the divine boat, he has commanded the princes of the world, he has made a great fight, he makes mention of what he has done, he has caused himself to be feared and established terror of him. His mother, the mighty lady, makes his protection and brings (?) him to Horus." Amulets of the vulture inscribed with this chapter are very rare. IV. The Collar
usex chapter of the Book of the Dead orders a collar of gold to be laid upon the neck of the deceased on the day of the funeral. It was to be inscribed :
Amulet collars are found made of red jasper, carnelian, etc.