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days, however, the native has brought skill and thought to
He has seen what the old faïence scarabs are made of, and he can now make a paste very much like that of which they are made. From the old broken ushabtiu
figures, scarabs and beads, he chips off the thin layer of Process of green or blue covering for his use. A large number of modern manufac.
genuine moulds for scarabs have been found, and from ture of
these and others which he makes like them, he turns out scarabs.
large numbers of scarabs ready for glazing. For glaze he uses the pieces which he has collected from broken genuine scarabs, etc., and he spreads this over the paste with a blow-pipe. When he wishes to make steatite scarabs he obtains the steatite from the mountains where the ancient Egyptians found it. There is a large amount of artistic skill in many natives, and with a little practice they are able to cut very good scarabs. The discoloration of the genuine scarab is easily imitated by keeping them in wet sand, earth and ashes, and if he wants to glaze them he makes use of the same method as in glazing his paste forgeries. For inscriptions he usually follows slavishly those inscribed on genuine scarabs, of which he keeps a good supply. In this matter, however, he is greatly helped by the act of an English traveller, who wrote out for one of these imitators a list of all the most important kings of Egypt! which he now imitates with great success. He sells hundreds, perhaps even thousands, of his scarabs yearly, and many of them bring a high price. One has only to see the excellent way in which some of the natives can make a fine and correct reproduction in stone from a sculpture in a tomb or temple, to understand how well the native can imitate such things. Colours and other materials and tools can now be easily obtained in Egypt, and through the support of numerous purchasers who have bought readily for some years past, the production of forgeries of antiquities in general, and of scarabs in particular, has become
I And this, notwithstanding the statement, “Generally speaking, forgeriesexcept of one or two obvious kinds—are very rare, and there is nothing like the amount of doubt in the matter which is often supposed to exist." Petrie, Hislorical Scarabs, p. 6.
a very profitable business. At more than one place in Egypt
* The ignorance of the habits and manner of life of the scarabaeus which is displayed by certain Syrian writers upon natural history is marvellous; here is a specimen : “The scarabaeus receiveth conception through its mouth, and when it cometh to bring forth, it giveth birth to its young through its ears. It hath the habit of stealing, and wherever it findeth small things and things of gold and silver it taketh and hideth them in its hole. And if pulse be found in the house it taketh [it] and mixeth [it] up with [other] things, chick-peas with beans, and beans with lentils, rice with millet and wheat, and everything which it findeth it mixeth up together in the place where it hideth itself. It thus doeth the work of the cooks who mix such things together to make to stumble those who buy pulse at the shops. And if any man taketh note of it and smiteth it, it taketh its vengeance upon [his] clothing. If having collected pieces of money and taken them forth to the race-course or to play with them, they be taken away from it, it wandereth about and turneth hither and thither, and if it findeth them not it straightway killeth itself.” Ahrens, Das Buch der Naturgegenstände, text, p. 41, translation, p. 62.
Physiologus on the scarabaeus.
ܐܘܨܪ ܐܪ̈ܪܐ in
.Heb) ܫܕܪ ܥܠܝܗܘܢ ܚܠܘܛܐ ܘܐܟܠ ܐܢܘܢ
Syriaca, tom. IV. p. 77, cap. 56. Bar-Hebraeus, commenting
on Psalm lxxviii. 45, and referring to the words
(., og nb wyzny, he sent among them the gad-fly, LXX., 'EĘ27Téστειλεν εις αυτούς κυνόμυιαν), “he sent against them crowds of insects and they devoured them," includes the scarab (
bizi plur. , . ) noxious creatures like dog-flies, scorpions, ants, etc.
armong (ܚܺܟ̈ܫܘܫܝܳܬܐ .plurܕܚܰܟܐܘܫܬ݁ܳܐ ܕ݁ܚܰܟ݁ܺܫܽܘܫܶܐ .plur ܚܠܘܛܐ ܨܪܨܘܪܐ ܘܡܫ̈ܘܛܐ ܘܫܪ̈ܨܐ ܘܥܩܪ̈ܒܐ ܘܚܸܒ̈ܫܽܘܫܝܬܐ ܘܫܘܫ̈ܡܢܐ ܘܨܪܨܘܪ̈ܝܬܐ ܘܕܒ̈ܒܐ ܘܫܪܟܐ ܕܒ̈ܒܝܢ ܟܠܒܵܐ ܀
AMULETS. 1. The Buckle or Tieß. This amulet, called by the Egyptians 1 : 8 bet, is one of the commonest objects found among collections of Egyptian amulets. It was most commonly made of red jasper, carnelian, red porphyry, red glass or faïence, and sycamore wood; sometimes it was made entirely of gold, and sometimes, when it was made of substances other than gold, it was set in gold, or covered over with gold leaf. Buckles are usually uninscribed, but frequently when two or more are found together the 156th chapter of the Book of the Dead is engraved on them. The buckle was placed on the neck of the mummy, which it was supposed to protect; the red material of which it was made represented the blood of Isis. The formula which is inscribed on buckles reads :
See Birch, The Amulet of the Tie, Aeg. Zeit., 1871, p. 13: and Maspero,