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This amulet is The papy.

rus sceptre usually made of mother-of-emerald or of faïence like unto it of Thoth. in colour, and the hieroglyphic word which it represents, means

, like; it was placed on the neck of the deceased, and indicated the eternal youth which it was hoped he would enjoy in the underworld. This amulet was sometimes inscribed with the 159th chapter of the Book of the Dead, where it is described as 8

o uat en nesem, "an uat' of mother-ofemerald.” The next chapter says that a rounded tablet, on which is a figure of the in relief, is to be placed on the neck of the deceased ; it was supposed to be given to him by Thoth, and to protect his limbs.

. made of hæmatite, and is generally uninscribed ; it is a model of the large pillows of wood, alabaster and stone which are placed under the heads of mummies to "lift them up.” When inscribed the text is a version of that of the 166th chapter of the Book of the Dead.

No. 20,647 in the British Museum reads :

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" See Birch, The Chapter of the Pillow, in Acg. Zeit., 1868, pp. 52-54.

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ta utu ari nek

Heru net' tef - f (as) has commanded to be done for thee Horus, the avenger of father his

er

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em

māk Verily

śāt Ausår åri

peru tepu slaughter Osiris maketh at the coming forth of the heads

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VII. The Heart 90 db. Amulets of the heart are made of carnelian, green jasper, basalt, lapis-lazuli, and many other kinds of hard stone. The heart was considered to be the source of all life and thought, and it was the part of the body that was specially taken care of in mummifying. It was embalmed and put in a jar by itself, and it could not be replaced in the body until it had undergone judgment by being weighed in the balance against ß, representing “ Law.” The heart was symbolised by the scarab, upon which the formulæ relating to the heart were inscribed ; and sometimes a heart amulet was inscribed with one of the chapters of the heart on one side, and a scarab on the other (B.M. No. 8003). Sometimes the heart is human-headed, with the hands crossed over it (B.M. 15,598), and sometimes a figure of the soul, in the shape of a hawk with outstretched wings, is inlaid on one side of it (B.M. No. 8005). The chapters in the Book of the Dead which refer to the heart are the 26th, the

Chapter of giving to a person his heart in the underworld”; The the 27th, 28th, 29th A, “ Chapter of not allowing the heart of Chapter a person to be taken away from him in the underworld ”; Heart. 29 B, "Chapter of a heart of carnelian ;" 30 A, and 30 B,

Chapter of not allowing the heart of a person to be turned away from him in the underworld.” The most important chapter of the heart, and that most commonly found, 29 B, is translated in that portion of this Catalogue which describes the green basalt heart in the Fitzwilliam Museum ; for the text of the others see Naville, Das Todtenbuch, BlI. XXXVII.XLIII. ; and for translations see Birch, On formulas relating to the heart, in Aeg: Zeit., 1866, pp. 69, 1867, pp. 16, 54 ; and Pierret, Le Livre des Morts, pp. 103-114. An interesting example of the heart amulet is described by Birch"; on one side are > Net, “ Neith” and the bennu bird, St, with the legend

Nuk ba xeperá, I am the soul of Chepera," and on the other is the common chapter of the heart. The bennu bird or phenix was an emblem of the resurrection.

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VIII. The Amulet of Life fànx. This object is found

in every material used by the Egyptians for making amulets,
and formed a very common ornament for the living and the
dead. Necklaces were frequently composed of pendants

and
GIP:

and sometimes neferu jit
"good luck," were added.
IX. The “Symbolic Eye” or

o This amulet was made of glazed faïence, wood, granite, hæmatite, carnelian, lapis-lazuli, gold, silver, and many other materials. Ut'ats are either right or left, and they are also made double or quadruple ; they are sometimes made in

Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in Alnwick Castle, p. 224.

The amulet of

hollow-work, and are sometimes ornamented with a number of others in relief. Some have on their obverse a head of Hathor (B.M. No. 7357) or a figure of Bes (B.M. No. 21,547); on their reverse they frequently have names of kings, private

persons, or gods. They are sometimes made with wings, and the utat. have an arm and hand holding f “ life,” projecting (B.M.

No.7378); and some have a ram and two lions on them in relief. The two ut'ats, right and left, represented the two eyes of the sun RR the one symbolising the northern half of the sun's daily course, and the other the southern half; they also represented the sun and moon. On sepulchral boxes the ut'ats are often accompanied by neferu ili R. The vignette of the 163rd chapter of the Book of the Dead contains two ut'ats, winged, with human legs, and the vignette of the 167th or “ Chapter of bringing the ut’at,” is ; the 140th chapter was to be recited over an ut'at made of lapis-lazuli, and offerings were to be made to it. The word ut'a

means “to be in good health, safe, preserved and happy," and the popularity of this amulet in Egypt was probably due to the fact that those who wore it, whether living or dead, were supposed to be safe and happy under the protection of the

eye of Rā.

Miscel. laneous amulets.

x. The amulet Nefer man or "Good Luck," was commonly made of glazed faïence or of carnelian, and was much used by the Egyptians for necklaces. XI. The amulet Sam for A

represented « union”; sometimes it is made thus to and then probably represents sam-ta, the union with the earth or “ funeral.”

XII. The amulet Chut represented the disk of the sun on the horizon, and was often made of jasper or hard stone.

XIII. The amulet Shen e represented the orbit of the sun, and is made of lapis-lazuli and of carnelian. It is often found on sepulchral stelæ and boxes, but its exact use is unknown,

laneous

XIV, XV. The amulet of the Tesher crown y represented the crown of Lower Egypt; and Het Q represented the crown of Upper Egypt.

XVI. The amulet of the Menat 4-87 signified Miscel "joy” and “health," and perhaps "life.” 1 It is always worn amulets. by Ptaḥ at the back of his neck, and it is frequently an emblem of the goddess Hathor. XVII. The Cartouche(

) is thought by Pierret (Dict. d'Archéologie Egyptienne, p. 118) to be nothing more than an elongated seal (see No. XIII), and to represent natural reproduction and eternity.

XVIII. The amulet Neha por 19 7 represented “protection”; it was made chiefly of hæmatite, and is found in the breast of the mummy.

XIX. The amulet of the Serpent's head is made of stone, red jasper, or paste to imitate red jasper, and carnelian. It was placed on mummies to prevent their being bitten by snakes and other reptiles in the underworld. The 34th chapter of the Book of the Dead, entitled, “Chapter of not allowing a person to be bitten in the underworld by a serpent,” is sometimes found engraved upon this amulet. In later times glass and fařence models of serpents o 8 worn by men and women round the neck; they were probably connected in some way with Isis.

XX. The amulet of the Disk and Plumes u probably represented the head-dress of Seker, the god of the resurrection; the feathers often occur without the disk. The use of this amulet is unknown. XXI. The Frog represents “myriads.'

myriads.” This amulet is made of steatite, jasper of various colours, faïence, etc.; it

were

1 For a discussion on this amulet see Lefébure, Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., 1891, pp. 333-349.

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