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hollow-work, and are sometimes ornamented with a number of others in relief. Some have on their obverse a head of Hathor (B.M. No. 7357) or a figure of Bes (B.M. No. 21,547); on their reverse they frequently have names of kings, private persons, or gods. They are sometimes made with wings, and
have an arm and hand holding † “life,” projecting (B.M. No. 7378); and some have a ram and two lions on them in relief. The two ut'ats, right and left, represented the two eyes of the sun #3, the one symbolising the northern half of the
sun's daily course, and the other the southern half; they also represented the sun and moon. On sepulchral boxes the ut'ats
are often accompanied by neferu ãIII*. The vignette
of the 163rd chapter of the Book of the Dead contains two ut'ats, winged, with human legs, and the vignette of the 167th,
or “Chapter of bringing the ut'at,” is <g. ; the 140th chapter
was to be recited over an ut'at made of lapis-lazuli, and offerings were to be made to it. The word ut'a Ş. | Şs | means “to Noa
be in good health, safe, preserved and happy,” and the popularity of this amulet in Egypt was probably due to the fact that those who wore it, whether living or dead, were supposed to be safe and happy under the protection of the eye of Ră.
commonly made of glazed faience or of carnelian, and was much used by the Egyptians for necklaces.
XI. The amulet Sam W Or |\, \! represented
“union”; sometimes it is made thus 4 and then probably
represents sam-ta, the union with the earth or “funeral.”
XIV, XV. The amulet of the Tesher crown §s repre
sented the crown of Lower Egypt; and Het. 4 represented the crown of Upper Egypt.
“joy" and “health,” and perhaps “life.” It is always worn by Ptah at the back of his neck, and it is frequently an emblem of the goddess Hathor.
XVII. The Cartouche O is thought by Pierret (Dict.
d'Archéologie Egyptienne, p. 118) to be nothing more than an elongated seal (see No. XIII), and to represent natural reproduction and eternity.
XVIII. The amulet Neha [F or ri oil represented
“protection"; it was made chiefly of haematite, and is found in the breast of the mummy.
XIX. The amulet of the Serpent's head is made of stone, red jasper, or paste to imitate red jasper, and carnelian. It was placed on mummies to prevent their being bitten by snakes and other reptiles in the underworld. The 34th chapter of the Book of the Dead, entitled, “Chapter of not allowing a person to be bitten in the underworld by a serpent,” is sometimes found engraved upon this amulet. In
later times glass and faience models of serpents o §. Were
worn by men and women round the neck; they were probably connected in some way with Isis.
XX. The amulet of the Disk and Plumes probably represented the head-dress of Seker, the god of the resurrection ; the feathers | often occur without the disk. The use of this amulet is unknown.
XXI. The Frog Xo represents “myriads.” This amulet is made of steatite, jasper of various colours, faience, etc.; it
1 For a discussion on this amulet see Lefébure, 7% ans. Soc. Bib. Arch., 1891, pp. 333-349. --~~~~
Miscellaneous amulets. The frog emblem of the resurrection.
is often found with | and | and was probably placed with
these on the neck of the mummy, although examples are known which were taken from the chest. The frog-headed
goddess $o Heqt is a form of the goddess Hathor, C.
the wife of Chnemu ; she was considered to be connected with the resurrection. On lamps of the Greek and Roman periods found in Egypt the frog often appears on the upper part, and one is known which has the legend esta) eIMI ANACTACIC, “I am the resurrection.” The use of this amulet appears not to be older than the XVIIIth dynasty.
XXII. The Stairs 2" or 22". This amulet is usually made of glazed faience, but the use of it is unknown to me. In the vignette of the 110th chapter of the Book of the Dead it is figured placed in a boat (Naville, Das Todtenbuch, Bl. CXXIII.); in the 22nd chapter the deceased says, “I am Osiris, lord of Re-stau (the passages of the tomb), and of those who are at the top of the stairs”; and in the 85th chapter the deceased says, “I am the lord of the stairs, I have made my nest on the borders of the sky.”
XXIII. The amulet of the two Fingers, the index and medius, is found in the interior of mummies, and is generally made of haematite or obsidian. The use of the amulet is unknown to me.
In every Egyptian collection of importance a large number of rings, having a gap in each, will be found; they are made of gold, red jasper, obsidian, red glazed faience, shell, stone, and glass. Those made of gold have a small ring at each end for a wire to pass through (?), and they may thus have been used as earrings or pendants for necklaces; on the other hand they may have been used as amulets. Some believe that they were used as buttons.
FIGURES OF GODS.
The gold, silver, bronze, wooden and faience figures of gods in Egyptian collections may be reckoned by thousands, and they vary in size from half an inch to fifteen inches or
* Figured in Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 853.
more. Bronze statues were usually cast in moulds, in one or more pieces, the core being made of sand or earth. When cast in pieces the limbs were soldered together and the edges smoothed with a file or scraper. The core is frequently found inside the statue, where it was left by the workmen to strengthen the casting. Figures of gods in gold are comparatively few, the gods most often represented in this metal being Amen-Ră, Chensu, and Nefer-Atmu; figures of these gods were also made of silver and plated with gold, and a figure of the god Set, made of bronze plated with gold, is also known (B.M. No. 18,191). Bronze figures of gods were sometimes inlaid with gold, and the eyes were made of gold or silver with obsidian pupils. Glazed faience figures of gods are very common, and certain gods were made of this substance, which up to the present have rarely been met with in bronze. They were usually cast from moulds, and follow fairly closely the design and patterns of the bronze figures; they do not occur earlier than the XXVth or XXVIth dynasty, and although wretched copies of them were made for hundreds of years after, they do not appear to have continued in use among all classes of people in Egypt. It may be mentioned in passing that the natives of Egypt at the present day make use of the old moulds, found chiefly in Upper Egypt, to cast figures of the gods in gold and silver which they sell to the traveller as genuine antiquities. Figures of the gods of Egypt are found among the ruins of houses and in temples and tombs. According to M. Mariette' those found among the ruins of towns are of two kinds: I, those placed in a niche, cut in the form of a shrine, which represented the divinity to the service of which the inhabitants of the house were attached, and before which, on certain days, offerings were laid; 2, those which were placed in crevices of the walls of the inner chambers of the house, and which were supposed to be able by magical influence to protect the inhabitants of the house from spells and the results of incantations, and from other malignant influences. The use of this latter class of statues or small
* Catalogue Général des Monuments d'Abydos, p. 1.
Method of manusacture.
Uses of bronze figures.
figures is as old as the XVIIIth dynasty, at least. The figures of gods found in temples are very numerous and are votive. The Egyptians seem to have believed that the gods inhabited statues or figures, made in their honour, and on this account they often made them very beautiful, so that they might form worthy habitations for them. On certain days prayers were said before them, and offerings were made to them. As figures of many different gods are found in the same temple, it follows that a worshipper wishing to place a figure of a god in a temple was not bound to offer one of the god to whom the temple was dedicated ; supposing the temple to be one of Ptah, he could offer a figure of Rā, or Chnemu, or of any god he pleased. Figures of gods were supposed to answer questions, for it will be remembered that when Chensu was asked if he would go to the land of Bechten to cure a daughter of the prince of that land of her sickness, he inclined his head in assent. When he arrived in that land, he held a conversation with the demon that possessed the maiden, and when the demon agreed to come out from her, provided that a feast were made in his honour, the god through his priest, assented. Figures of gods other than Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys are not commonly found in tombs; it is true that many examples in faience are found in the wrappings of mummies, but in these cases they were simply used as amulets like the buckle, tet, pillow and many others. Figures of gods made of every sort of material were also buried in the sand around temples and tombs with the view of guarding them from every evil influence. The following is a list of the most important of the gods and goddesses of whom figures were made in bronze and glazed faience:–
great triad of Thebes; the word Amen means “hidden.” Amen was said to be the son of Ptah, and he seems to have usurped the attributes of all the other gods. Before the expulsion of the Hyksos by Se-qenen-Ră his position was that of the local god of Thebes; subsequently he became the national god of Egypt. He was said to be the maker of things above and of things below, and to have more forms