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than any other god. He made the gods, and stretched out the heavens, and founded the earth; he was lord of eternity and maker of everlasting. The Egyptians affirmed of him that he was ONE, the ONLY ONE. In bronze figures

he stands upon a plinth, he holds the sceptre | in his left hand, and on his head he wears the disk and feathers Ä ; at

times he holds a scimitar (B.M. Nos. 28, 29). He is also represented seated on a throne, and the throne was sometimes placed inside a shrine, the top of which was ornamented with uraei, winged disk, etc., and the sides and back with hollow-work figures of Isis, Nephthys, and Osiris (B.M. No. 11,013). On the pedestals he is called “Amen-Ră, lord of the thrones of the world, the president of the Apts (i.e.,

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one of a triad consisting of Amen, Amsu, and Ră (B.M. No. 18,681). The faience figures of this god are similar to

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the bronze , and he appears together with the other

members of his triad, Mut and Chensu. The god Àmes or Ámsu 9

At ), commonly read of procre. ation. “Chem,” is a form of Amen-Rā, and represented “genera

tion” or the productive power in nature : figures of him, in bronze and farence, 14

, are tolerably numerous. Ra e 8),

the Sun-god, was also the creator of gods and men ; his emblem was the sun's disk. His worship was

very ancient, and he was said to be the offspring of Nut, or Different the sky. He assumed the forms of several other gods, and is

at times represented by the lion, cat, and hawk. In papyri and on bas-reliefs he has the head of a hawk, and wears a disk, in front of which is an uræus When he rose in the morning he was called ķeru-chuti or Harmachis; and at night, when he set, he was called Atmu, or “the closer."

forms of Rā.


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Heru (Horus).

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During the night he was supposed to be engaged in fighting
Apepi, the serpent, who, at the head of a large army of
fiends, personifications of mist, darkness, and cloud, tried
to overthrow him. The battle was renewed daily, but Rā
always conquered, and appeared day after day in the sky.
Bronze and faïence figures of this god represent him hawk-
headed and wearing disk and uræus.

in bronze figures is hawk- Rā the

warrior. headed, and wears the disk, in front of which are two uræi, and plumes ; at times figures have two hawk's heads on a single body.

Horus usually called “the avenger of his father,” in reference to his defeat of Set. Figures in bronze and faïence represent him hawk-headed and wearing the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. This god was distinguished in name only from Heru-ur, the elder brother of Osiris. Harpocrates, or Heru-pa-Chraç

the morning The god

of youth.

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sun, in bronze or faïence wears the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt 4, or the triple crown Me, or the plumes . or is quite bald ; over the right shoulder a lock of hair falls, and the tip of a finger of the right hand rests on his lips. He is represented naked, as being in the lap of his mother Isis.

Chensu % ง was associated with Amen-Ra and Mut in the Theban triad, and was god of the moon. In bronze figures he is human-headed, and wears a crescent and

disk; in faïence figures he is made like a mummy, and holds Different sceptres of different shapes in his hands. His second name forms of Chensu.

was Nefer-ḥetep, and he was worshipped with great honour at Thebes. Chensu-pa-chrat

has all the attributes of Harpocrates, and figures of him in bronze are

A very fine specimen is B.M. No. 11,045

or Atmu - Ý the “Closer” The night. of the day or night, usually represents the night-sun. He

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not rare.


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wears the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt; in the right hand he holds f, and in the left 4. Nefer-Åtmu, the son of Ptah and Sechet or Bast, represents the power of the heat of the rising sun. Figures of this god were made in gold, silver, bronze, and faïence. In metal, he stands upright, wearing lotus flowers and plumes on his head, in his right hand he holds 4 and in the left 4. Sometimes each shoulder is inlaid in gold with an utat (B.M. No. 22,921). In faïence he has the same head-dress, but stands on a lion ; in faïence, too, he is often accompanied by his mother Sechet or Bast (B.M. Nos. 2500, 260a). Ptaḥ°), the “Opener,” perhaps the oldest of all the The oldest

god of gods of Egypt, was honoured with a temple and worshipped Egypt. at Memphis from the time of the Ist dynasty. He is said to be the father of the gods, who came forth from his eye, and of men, who came forth from his mouth.


B. M.



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