Page images
PDF
[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

He is represented in the form of a mummy, and he holds a sceptre composed of | usr, “strength,” anch, “life,” and

tet, “stability.” Bronze and farence figures of this god are tolerably common, and resemble each other in form and design. At the back of his neck he wears the mendt (W.

With reference to his connexion with the resurrection and the nether world, he is called Ptah-Seker-Ausār, and is represented as a little squat boy, with bent legs, and his hands on his hips. Sometimes he has his feet on the head of a crocodile; on the right side stands Isis, on the left Nephthys, at his back is a human-headed hawk emblematic of the soul, on each shoulder is a hawk, and on his head

is a beetle, the emblem of Cheperä, the self-begotten god.

In faience figures of this god are very common, but in bronze they are rare.

I-em-hetep }\ *: § the Imouthis of the Greeks,

was the first-born son of Ptah and Nut. He is represented

[merged small][graphic]

both standing and seated, holding a sceptre | in the right

hand, and in the left; at times he holds on his knees

an open roll, upon which is inscribed his name. The bronze figures of this god are usually of very fine workmanship, often having the inscriptions inlaid in gold; in faience, figures of this god are very rare.

Chnemu Ö \ Ş. § the “Moulder,” the Xvovals, The

[ocr errors]

Xvoú8ws, Xvow8t, Kvijob or Kvovopts of the Greeks, is one of er” of the oldest gods of Egypt, and was especially worshipped "** in Nubia, at Philae, where he is represented making man out of clay on a potter's wheel, and at Elephantine. Like Amen-Ră he is said to be the father of the gods, and

Cheperå. Tehuti (Thoth). 1 Father of the fathers of the gods, the lord who evolveth from himself, maker

co co earth, the underworld, water, and mountains *_ ovv^^^ do of heaven, y > > | | ||

evo sy. avva DYN4. §§§ & awato

[graphic]

Thoth the accurate scribe of the gods.

with this god and Ptah and Cheperá he shared the name of

“creator of men.” Chnemu put together the scattered limbs of the dead body of Osiris, and it was he who created the beautiful woman who became the wife of Bata in the Tale of the Two Brothers. In bronze and faience, figures of this god represent him with the head of a ram, and wearing

plumes, \\ ; these figures are tolerably common.

Thoth, in Egyptian Tehuti o , the “Measurer,” was the scribe of the gods, the measurer of time and inventor of numbers. In the judgment hall of Osiris he stands by the side of the balance holding a palette and reed ready to record the result of the weighing of the heart as announced by the dog-headed ape who sits on the middle of the beam of the scales. In bronze figures he is represented with the head of an ibis, but he has upon it sometimes horns and plumes. In faience figures he has also the head of an ibis, and occasionally he holds an ut'at of between his hands in front of him

(B. M. No. 490a). -
Set or Sut |o ń. Gr. 2 j6, was one of the sons of Seb
and Nut, and was brother of Osiris, and husband of Nephthys.

_-His worship dates from the Vth dynasty, and he continued

The murderer of Osiris and oft. of Horus.

to be a most popular god in Egypt until the XIXth dynasty; kings delighted to call themselves “beloved of Set,” and to be compared to him for valour when the records of their battles were written down. He probably represented the destructive power of the sun's heat. Between the XXIInd and XXVth dynasties a violent reaction set in against this god, his statues and figures were smashed, his effigy was hammered out from the bas-reliefs and stelae in which it appeared, and from being a beneficent god, and a companion of Amen and his brother-gods, he became the personification of all evil, and the opponent of all good. His persistent enmity of Osiris will be mentioned below. Set, or Sutech, was chosen by the Hyksos for their god. Bronze figures of Sct are very rare indeed. The British Museum possesses two examples, Nos. 18,191 and 22,897; each represents the god standing upright, in each he has the characteristic animal's

head, and wears the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, g ;

each figure was originally gilded, and each has a hole drilled in a projecting piece of metal, from which it was suspended and worn. When I bought the larger figure it was bent double, evidently by a violent blow, given probably when the reaction against this god's worship set in. Fasence figures of Set I have never seen.

[ocr errors]

. -ocOsiris, in Egyptian Austir fift , the great god and king of

the underworld, the judge of the dead, was the son of Seb and Nut, and husband of Isis; he was murdered by his brother Set, who was in turn slain by Horus, the son of Osiris, and the “avenger of his father.” According to Plutarch (De Plutarch's Iside et Osiride, xii.-xx.) Osiris was the wise and good king .." of Egypt, who spent his life in civilizing his subjects and in improving their condition. Having brought them out of degradation and savagery, he set out to do the like for the

other nations of the world. Upon his return his brother Set,

[graphic]

together with seventy-two other people, and the queen of Ethiopia, made a conspiracy against him. They invited him into a banqueting room, and by an artful device made Osiris get into a box which Set had previously caused to be made to fit him. As soon as Osiris had lain down in it, the conspirators nailed the cover on it, and having poured molten lead over it, they carried it by river to the sea, the waves of which washed it up at Byblos. As soon as Isis heard of what had happened, she set out to search for her husband's body, and eventually found it; but having carried it off to another place, it was accidentally discovered by Set, who forthwith broke open the chest, and tore the body into fourteen pieces, which he scattered up and down the country. Isis then set out to search for the pieces of her husband's body, and she found all but one; wherever she found a piece she buried it, and built a temple over it. He was the type of all mummies, and the deceased is made like unto him, and named after him. Bronze figures of this god represent him as a mum

[ocr errors][merged small][graphic]
« PreviousContinue »