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mified figure wearing the crown «y, in his right hand he holds the whip s\ , and in the left the crook s. Figures of
this god in fasence are not very common.
Isis, in Egyptian Auset |S §. was a daughter of Seb and Nut; she married her brother Osiris. Bronze figures represent her 1, standing and wearing s upon her head, and 2, seated suckling her naked child Horus, who is sitting on her
knees, at her left breast, and wearing disk and horns YGY upon her head. In faience many figures of both kinds are found. In funereal scenes Isis stands at the foot of the bier mourning the deceased.
Nephthys, in Egyptian Webt-het |S}, was also a
daughter of Seb and Nut; she married her brother Set. Bronze figures, which are not common, represent her standing
draped in a long tunic, and wearing ls on her head ; in
faience, figures of this goddess are very numerous, and follow the style and design of those in bronze. A number of rectangular fasence pendants have been found in which Isis, Nephthys and Harpocrates or Horus stand side by side.
Anubis, in Egyptian Ampu |o j, was, according to
some legends, the son of Nephthys and Osiris, who mistook that goddess for Isis; elsewhere he is said to be the son of Rä. He is always represented as having the head of a jackal, and he is one of the chief gods of the dead and the netherworld. He presided over the embalming of the mummy, he led the mummy into the presence of Osiris, and watched over the ceremony of weighing the heart, and he is often represented standing by the bier with one hand laid on the mummy. The belief that this god acted in this capacity survived for some centuries after Christ, and a remarkable proof of this fact is given by a light green, glazed faience plaque in the British Museum, No. 22,874. On the obverse Anubis, jackal-headed, in relief, stands by the side of a bier in the shape of a lion, also in relief; on the reverse, in relief,
Sunlight and moisture.
are two lines of inscription in Coptic which read, & C IRC e Tuoruk, “May she hasten to arise.” At each end is a pierced projection whereby the plaque was fastened to the mummy. The plaque is an interesting example of the survival of ancient Egyptian ideas among the Egyptians after they had embraced Christianity. Anubis is sometimes confused with
Ap-uat vo j, “the opener of the ways,” another
jackal-headed god, and the attributes of the one are ascribed
to the other. Bronze and faience figures of this god represent him standing and having the head of a jackal.
and Hathor, and brother of Tefnut, he is supposed to symbolise the air or sun-light, and in papyri and on coffins he is represented in the form of a man, standing with both arms raised, lifting up Nut, or the sky, from the embrace of Seb the earth. In bronze and faience figures he is in the form of
a man kneeling on his right knee and supporting the sun's disk and horizon with his upraised arms on his shoulders. There is in the British Museum (No. 1 1,057) a fine example of an aegis in bronze with the heads of Shu and Tefnut,
a Ö à. his sister, upon it. Shu is bearded and wears two
and wears a disk and uraeus; B.M. No. 389 is an example of these gods in faience. Standing figures of Shu, in faience, have sometimes S) on his head.
Hāpi #5 \\ #: § , the god of the Nile, is depicted as a man, sitting or standing, holding a table or altar on which
are vases for libations, \, and lotus flowers #o and
fruits, he also has a clump of lotus flowers W. upon his head. The Nile.
d. The British Museum possesses a figure of this god, No. 1 1,069, go
offerings of plants, fruits and flowers before him. On his head he wears J. and in front is an ut'at &.
Apis or Hapi * * 52, “the second life of Ptah," and
the incarnation of Osiris, was the name given to the sacred bull of Memphis, where the worship of this god was most ancient, having been introduced from Heliopolis by Kakau, a king of the IInd dynasty. He is variously called “the son of Ptah,” “the son of Tmu,” “the son of Osiris,” and “the son of Seker.” In bronze Hāpi is sometimes represented in the form of a man with a bull's head, between the horns of which are a disk and an uraeus wearing a disk. Usually, however, he is in the form of a bull having a disk and an uraeus between the horns ; on the back above the shoulders is engraved a vulture with outstretched wings, and on the back, over the hind quarters, is a winged scarab. The bull usually stands on a rectangular pedestal, on the sides of which are inscribed the name and titles of the person who had the bull made; on the same pedestal is frequently a figure of this person kneeling in adoration before him. Figures of Apis in bronze are commoner than those in faience. According to Herodotus (II. 27–29) Apis was the calf of a cow incapable of conceiving another offspring; “and the Egyptians say, that lightning descends upon the cow from heaven, and that from thence it brings forth Apis. This calf, which is called Apis, has the following marks: it is black, and has a square spot of white on the forehead ; and on the back the figure of an eagle ; and in the tail double hairs; and on the tongue a beetle.”
§ o or Serapis by the Greeks, and he is represented on coffins in the form of a bull with disk and uraeus on his head; on his back is the mummy of the deceased, above which the soul in the form of a hawk is seen hovering. The place where the Apis bulls that lived at Memphis were buried was called the Serapeum, and Mariette discovered at Sakkârah their tombs, dating from the time of Amenophis III. down to that of the Roman Empire. Above each tomb of an Apis bull was built a chapel, and it was the series of chapels which formed the Serapeum properly so called.
The Mnevis bull, Uno, worshipped at Heliopolis,
is thought by some to represent the same symbolism, and to be identical in form with Apis ; he is called the “renewing of the life of Ră.”
Mesthä, Håpi, Tuamäutef and Qebhsennuf, the four children of Horus (see Canopic Jars, p. 194), are common in glazed faience, but rare in bronze.
Sati i. §: together with Anqet —"47), and Chnemu,
formed the triad of Elephantine, and she seems to resemble Nephthys in some of her attributes. She usually stands up
right, holding # in her right hand, and s in her left. The
British Museum possesses one example, No. 1 Io, in bronze, in which she is represented seated. On her head she wears the crown of Upper Egypt, in the front of which is an
The gods of the Cardinal points.