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mified figure wearing the crown B in his right hand he
holds the whip A., and in the left the crook P. Figures of
this god in faïence are not very common.
Isis, in Egyptian Auset let,

, was a daughter of Seb and The family

of Osiris. Nut; she married her brother Osiris. Bronze figures represent her I, standing and wearing | upon her head, and 2, seated suckling her naked child Horus, who is sitting on her knees, at her left breast, and wearing disk and horns Q upon her head. In faïence many figures of both kinds are found. In funereal scenes Isis stands at the foot of the bier mourning the deceased.

Nephthys, in Egyptian Nebt-het TOJ, was also a daughter of Seb and Nut; she married her brother Set. Bronze figures, which are not common, represent her standing draped in a long tunic, and wearing | on her head ; in faïence, figures of this goddess are very numerous, and follow the style and design of those in bronze. A number of rectangular faïence pendants have been found in which Isis, Nephthys and Harpocrates or Horus stand side by side.

Anubis, in Egyptian Ånpu 4 mest Ý, was, according to some legends, the son of Nephthys and Osiris, who mistook that goddess for Isis; elsewhere he is said to be the son of Rā. He is always represented as having the head of a jackal, and he is one of the chief gods of the dead and the netherworld. He presided over the embalming of the mummy, he The god

of the led the mummy into the presence of Osiris, and watched over the ceremony of weighing the heart, and he is often represented standing by the bier with one hand laid on the mummy. The belief that this god acted in this capacity survived for some centuries after Christ, and a remarkable proof of this fact is given by a light green, glazed faïence plaque in the British Museum, No. 22,874. On the obverse PersistAnubis, jackal-headed, in relief, stands by the side of a bier ence of

Pagan be in the shape of a lion, also in relief; on the reverse, in relief, liefsamong

the Copts.

are two lines of inscription in Coptic which read, &C IHC E TWIK, “May she hasten to arise.” At each end is a pierced projection whereby the plaque was fastened to the mummy. The plaque is an interesting example of the survival of ancient Egyptian ideas among the Egyptians after they had embraced Christianity. Anubis is sometimes confused with Åp-uat VW . “the

“the opener of the ways," another jackal-headed god, and the attributes of the one are ascribed

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Anpu (Anubis).


to the other. Bronze and faïence figures of this god represent him standing and having the head of a jackal.

Shu, in Egyptian was the first-born son of Rā

and Hathor, and brother of Tefnut, he is supposed to Sunlight symbolise the air or sun-light, and in papyri and on coffins he and

is represented in the form of a man, standing with both arms raised, lifting up Nut, or the sky, from the embrace of Seb the earth. In bronze and faïence figures he is in the form of



a man kneeling on his right knee and supporting the sun's disk and horizon with his upraised arms on his shoulders. There is in the British Museum (No. 11,057) a fine example of an ægis in bronze with the heads of Shu and Tefnut, 83, his sister, upon it. Shu is bearded and wears two

. pairs of plumes upon his head; Tefnut has the head of a lion and wears a disk and uræus; B.M. No. 389 is an example of these gods in faïence. Standing figures of Shu, in faïence, have sometimes won his head.


), ,

the god of the Nile, is depicted as a man, sitting or standing, holding a table or altar on which are vases for libations, , and lotus flowers and fruits, he also has a clump of lotus flowers upon his head. The Nile

god. The British Museum possesses a figure of this god, No. 11,069, which represents him standing upright, with a table of

Нарi ko


B. Shmed

Michele That

Нарі, , the god of the Nile.

The Apis Bull.

offerings of plants, fruits and flowers before him.

On his

head he wears

, and in front is an utat se

" the incarnation of Osiris, was the name given to the Antiquity sacred bull of Memphis, where the worship of this god was of Apis worship. most ancient, having been introduced from Heliopolis by

Kakau, a king of the IInd dynasty. He is variously called “the son of Ptah,” “the son of Tmu,” “ the son of Osiris,” and the son of Seker." In bronze Hāpi is sometimes represented in the form of a man with a bull's head, between the horns of which are a disk and an uræus wearing a disk. Usually, however, he is in the form of a bull having a disk and an uræus between the horns ; on the back above the shoulders is engraved a vulture with outstretched wings, and on the back, over the hind quarters, is a winged scarab. The bull usually stands on a rectangular pedestal, on the sides of which are inscribed the name and titles of the


who had the bull made; on the same pedestal is frequently a figure of this person kneeling in adoration before him. Figures of Apis in bronze are commoner than those in faïence. According to Herodotus (II. 27–29) Apis was the calf of a cow incapable of conceiving another offspring ; "and the Egyp

tians say, that lightning descends upon the cow from heaven, Descrip and that from thence it brings forth Apis. This calf, which tion of the Apis bull. is called Apis, has the following marks : it is black, and has a

square spot of white on the forehead ; and on the back the
figure of an eagle ; and in the tail double hairs; and on the
tongue a beetle.”
When Apis was dead he was called Ausår Hāpi or in

or Serapis by the Greeks, and he is represented on coffins in the form of a bull with disk and uræus on his head; on his back is the mummy of the deceased, above which the soul in the form of a hawk is seen hovering, The place where the Apis bulls that lived at Memphis were buried was called the Serapeum, and Mariette discovered at Şakkârah their tombs, dating from the time of Amenophis III. down to that of the Roman Empire. Above each tomb of

an Apis bull was built a chapel, and it was the series of chapels which formed the Serapeum properly so called.

The Mnevis bull, 157, worshipped at Heliopolis, is thought by some to represent the same symbolism, and to be identical in form with Apis ; he is called the “renewing of the life of Rā."

Mesthå, Hāpi, Țuamäutef and Qebhsennuf, the four The gods children of Horus (see Canopic Jars, p. 194), are common in

of the

Cardinal glazed faïence, but rare in bronze.

points. Sati Da I, together with Ănqet formed the triad of Elephantine, and she seems to resemble Nephthys in some of her attributes. She usually stands upright, holding † in her right hand, and in her left. The British Museum possesses one example, No. 110, in bronze, in which she is represented seated. On her head she wears the crown of Upper Egypt, in the front of which is an

mwach and Chnemu,

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