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6. Bull , sacred to Apis or Mnevis, having disk and uræus between his horns, and the figures of a vulture with outspread wings and a winged scarab on his back. Figures in bronze and stone are more common than in faïence.

7. Ram, 23, sacred to Chnemu or Åmen-Rā; figures in bronze and faïence are tolerably common. 8. Cat

Large Animals

sacred to votive figures of the cat were made of bronze and wood, the the gods. eyes being inlaid with obsidian and gold ; B.M. No. 22,927 has the eyes, and a large number of the hairs of the body, inlaid with gold. The smaller figures worn for ornament by the votaries of Bast are made of bronze, stone, rock-crystal, faïence, &c. ; in the smaller figures the cat is represented

with one

, two, or more kittens, and the top of the sceptre

is often ornamented with a cat.

9. Jackal ta sacred to Ånpu (Anubis), or to Åp-uat. In bronze figures, which are plentiful, he stands on a pedestal which fitted on to the top of a sceptre or staff; faïence figures are not very common. A large number of wooden models from the top of sepulchral boxes are known.

10. Hare fw, sacred to Osiris Unnefer; figures in faïence are common. 11. Sow 535, sacred to Set (?), was the abomination of

A, according to the 112th chapter of the Book of the Dead ; figures of this animal in faïence are fairly common. B.M. No. 11,897 has a head at each end of its body.

12. Hippopotamus S7, sacred to Setor Typhon ; many large and beautiful examples of this animal in glazed faïence and steatite exist in public and private collections.

Horus J. Da

13. Stag Figures in which the animal is repre

sented with its legs tied together ready for sacrifice are known in bronze, e.g., B.M. No. 1696.

14. Hedgehog, a few examples of which, in bronze and faïence, are known.

15. Shrew-mouse, sacred to Horus (?), examples of which are commoner in bronze than in faïence.

16. Ichneumon. Examples in bronze, in which the animal wears disk and horns and plumes, are known, but figures in faïence are rare.

17. Crocodile so, sacred to Sebek ; examples in bronze

and faïence are fairly common. Birls

18. Vulture sacred to Mut; figures of this bird in
sacred to
the gods. bronze and faïence are few.
19. Hawk

sacred to Horus ; votive figures are made
of bronze, stone, and wood, and the hawk wears either the
crown of Upper or Lower Egypt, or both crowns united.
In smaller figures worn for ornament, it wears a disk (B.M.
No. 1889) or
1859); it is often man-headed, when it represents the soul,

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4, (B.M. No. 1850), or plumes (B.M. No. A, and sometimes two hawks are on one pedestal, and in Arabia under the name of Sept AS, is often

each has the head of a man.

A form of Horus, worshipped

found in hard stone and wood ; figures made of the latter
material are generally found on the small chests which
cover the portions of human bodies placed in the pedestals
of Ptah-Seker-Ausår figures. When complete they have
plumes on their heads.
20. Ibis


faïence are not rare.

21. Frog and Toad. Figures of both reptiles are common in bronze and faïence.

22. Fish Ca. The five kinds of fish of which figures in bronze and faïence are known are the Oxyrhynchus, Phagrus, Latus, Silurus, and the Lepidotus; of these the Oxyrhynchus, Silurus, and Lepidotus are the commonest. The Oxyrhynchus fish, B.M. No. 1953, has on its back horns, disk, and uræus ; fish were sacred to Hathor, Isis, Mut, and other goddesses.

23. Scorpion 3:2, sacred to Serqet. Figures in bronze have often a woman's head on which are horns and disk, and if mounted, the sides of the base have inscriptions upon them which show that the scorpion was regarded as Isis—Serqet. Fasence figures of this reptile are tolerably numerous.

Uraeus o or serpent, sacred to or emblem of Mehen,

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Scarab §, emblem of the god Cheperä (see p. 234).

The largest scarab known is preserved in the British Museum (Southern Egyptian Gallery, No. 74), and is made of green granite ; it was probably a votive offering in some temple, and was brought from Constantinople, whither it was probably taken after the Roman occupation of Egypt. The scarabs worn for ornament round the neck, and in finger-rings, were made of gold, silver, every kind of precious stone known to the Egyptians, and faience. B.M. No. 1 1,630 is an interesting example of a horned scarab; B.M. No. 2043, in faience, has the head of a hawk, and B.M. No. 12,040 has the head of a bull.


Figures of kings and private persons were placed in temples or tombs either by the persons they represented, or by those who wished to do honour to them. Figures of kings occupied prominent places in the temples, and services were performed before them, and offerings made to them as to the gods, among the number of whom kings were supposed to have entered. The Rosetta Stone states (ll, 39–42) that the priests of all Egypt decreed that a figure or statue of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, should be placed in the most conspicuous part of every temple, that the priests should thrice daily perform services before it, and that sacred decorations should be placed upon it. The custom of placing such figures in temples and tombs is as old as the IVth dynasty at least, for many examples of this period are known ; as we are certain that religious services were held in tombs during

Uses of StatucS.

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the earlier dynasties, figures of deceased persons must have
been placed in them, and it would seem that the custom is as
old as the settlement of the Egyptians in Egypt. Votive
figures of the gods were rarely colossal, but figures of kings
were made of every size, and their heights vary from a few
inches to several feet; the colossi of Amenophis III., of
Heru-em-Heb, and of Rameses II., are examples of the
extreme size to which figures of kings attained. In the
earlier dynasties there can be no doubt that the artist
endeavoured to make the form and features of the figure
exactly like the person for whom it was made; how well
they succeeded is evident from the most cursory examination
of the figures of the first six dynasties exhibited in European
museums, or in the Museum of Gizeh, which is particularly

Woman kneading bread. [Museum of Gizeh].

Votive statues.

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