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23. Scorpion 34, sacred to Serqet. Figures in bronze have often a woman's head on which are horns and disk, and if mounted, the sides of the base have inscriptions upon them which show that the scorpion was regarded as Isis-Serqet. Faïence figures of this reptile are tolerably numerous.

Uræus la or serpent, sacred to or emblem of Meḥen,

,or ,

; faïence are not rare.

Scarab , emblem of the god Cheperà (sce p. 234). The largest scarab known is preserved in the British Museum (Southern Egyptian Gallery, No. 74), and is made of green granite; it was probably a votive offering in some temple, and was brought from Constantinople, whither it was probably taken after the Roman occupation of Egypt. The scarabs worn for ornament round the neck, and in finger-rings, were made of gold, silver, every kind of precious stone known to the Egyptians, and faïence. B.M. No. 11,630 is an interesting example of a horned scarab; B.M. No. 2043, in faïence, has the head of a hawk, and B.M. No. 12,040 has the head of a bull.

FIGURES OF KINGS AND PRIVATE PERSONS.

statues.

Figures of kings and private persons were placed in temples or tombs either by the persons they represented, or by those who wished to do honour to them. Figures of Uses of kings occupied prominent places in the temples, and services were performed before them, and offerings made to them as to the gods, among the number of whom kings were supposed to have entered. The Rosetta Stone states (ll. 39-42) that the priests of all Egypt decreed that a figure or statue of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, should be placed in the most conspicuous part of every temple, that the priests should thrice daily perform services before it, and that sacred decorations should be placed upon it. The custom of placing such figures in temples and tombs is as old as the IVth dynasty at least, for many examples of this period are known; as we are certain that religious services were held in tombs during

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statues,

the earlier dynasties, figures of deceased persons must have
been placed in them, and it would seem that the custom is as
old as the settlement of the Egyptians in Egypt. Votive Votive
figures of the gods were rarely colossal, but figures of kings
were made of every size, and their heights vary from a few
inches to several feet; the colossi of Amenophis III., of
Heru-em-Heb, and of Rameses II., are examples of the
extreme size to which figures of kings attained. In the
earlier dynasties there can be no doubt that the artist
endeavoured to make the form and features of the figure
exactly like the person for whom it was made ; how well
they succeeded is evident from the most cursory examination
of the figures of the first six dynasties exhibited in European
museums, or in the Museum of Gîzeh, which is particularly

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rich in figures of this period. The famous Shekh el-Beled is what may well be termed a “speaking likeness," and the other figures of that date show that he is not a solitary success of the Egyptian artist. In later times conventional representation was adopted in forming the figure, with the result that the sculptor lost the art of portraiture once and for all. Figures were made of granite, basalt, and other hard stones, limestone, gold, silver, bronze, wood, steatite, faïence, and terra-cotta. Standing figures have the arms placed at the sides of the body ,and the hands usually hold a roll; sometimes, however,

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they hold a sceptre, or weapon, or lowers, or 4, and figures made in the form of Osiris have the hands crossed over the breast. Figures kneeling or sitting on the ground hold with both hands tablets or altars, or shrines engraved with funereal inscriptions, before them ; figures seated on thrones or chairs have the hands laid flat on the knees. All figures were draped, and the pedestals or plinths on which they stood were usually inscribed with the names and titles of the persons for whom they were made; at times the various

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