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Historical first records his lion hunts; the second the coming of Thi, the scarabs of Ameno
daughter of an Asiatic father, to Egypt, accompanied by 317 phis III. of her women ; the third the marriage of Amenophis and Thi,
and the fourth the building of a large lake 3,600 cubits long by 600 cubits wide for his queen near the town of T'ārucha, which the king opened on the 16th of Choiak in the eleventh year of his reign, by sailing across it in his barge called Åten
neferu. The tablets inscribed in cuneiform recently found at The Tell Tell el-Amarna prove that Amenophis III. married a sister el-Amarna and daughter of Kallimma-Sin, king of Karaduniyash, a tablets.
country probably lying to the north-east of Syria; Gilukhîpa
the sister of Tushratta, king of Mitani, and Sâtumkhîpa Marriage daughter of Tushratta; and Thi the daughter of parents who with Thi.
were not royal. The country of Mitani also lay to the northeast of Syria, and we know that like Tiglath-Pileser I., king of Assyria, about B.C. 1120, Amenophis III. went thither frequently to hunt lions. The kings and governors of places as remote as Babylon promptly claimed the friendship of their new kinsman, and their letters expressing their willingness to make alliances offensive and defensive, are some of the most
interesting objects of the "find” at Tell el-Amarna. 1466 Of Amen-ḥetep IV., or Chu-en-åten, the son of Åmen
þetep III. and the Mesopotamian lady Thi, very little is known ; he built a temple at Heliopolis, another at Memphis,
one at Thebes, and some in Nubia. He is famous, however, Heresy of as the leader of the heresy of the “ disk worshippers,” that is the disk worship
to say of those people who worshipped the disk of the sun, pers.
Åten Aman, in preference to Amen-Rā, the national god of Egypt. He showed how much he detested the god Àmen, by setting aside his name Amen-ḥetep and adopting that of Chu-en-åten, “the brilliance of the disk.” The worship of the disk was of some antiquity, and seems to have been a monotheistic worship of Rā which originated in Heliopolis. Amenophis III. seems to have encouraged this form of religion somewhat, and it is certain that he named his barge Aten-neseru, “the most beautiful disk.” The native Egyptian
i See The Tell el-Amarna tablets in the British Museum, by Bezold and Budge, p. xviii.
priesthood disliked the foreign queen, and the sight of her Amenoson with his protruding chin, thick lips, and other charac
quarrels teristics of a foreign race, found no favour in their eyes ; that with the
priests. such a man should openly despise the worship of Amen-Rā was a thing intolerable to them. In answer to their angry words and acts, the king ordered the name of Amen-Rā to be chiselled out of all the monuments, even from his father's name. Rebellion then broke out, and Chu-en-åten left Thebes and founded a new city for himself at a place between Memphis and Thebes, now called Tell el-Amarna. After a few Founding years the queen Thi came to live there, and there Chu-en-åten
of city at passed the rest of his life with his wife and seven daughters. Amarna. In the twelfth year of his reign he celebrated his victories over the Syrians and Ethiopians, but it is doubtful if they were of any importance.
After the death of Amenophis IV. there is some confusion in Egyptian history; the immediate successors of the “heretic The king” were Se-aa-ka-Rā, Tut-anch-Amen, Ai, of whom but Heretic”
kings. little is known. The last king of the XVIIIth dynasty was Heru-em-heb, the Horus of Manetho, who seems to have been a native of Het-suten, the Alabastronpolis of the Greeks, or Tell el-Amarna. He made an expedition into Nubia and the lands to the south of that country, and he carried on buildings at various places, and restored temples at Heliopolis, Memphis, Thebes and elsewhere.
THE NINETEENTH DYNASTY. Of the events which led to Rameses I. becoming sole king of Egypt nothing whatever is known. Some suppose that he was connected with Horus, the last king of the XVIIIth dynasty, but there are no proofs which can be brought forward in support of this theory. He seems to have carried on some small war with the people of Nubia, and to have been concerned in a treaty with the Cheta; he also built War with a little at Thebes. He is famous, however, as the father of Cheta. Seti I., and grandfather of Rameses II. ; the former was probably associated with him in the rule of the kingdom, but how long it is not possible to say.
While Amenophis IV. was quarrelling with the priests of
Amen about the worship of the disk, and during the rule of
monuments Seti reigned about twenty-seven years. The