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2. Ibis-headed god, Thoth, e===", “lord of Chemennu, lord of divine words,” and the god Her-shef <> =. hawk-headed, wearing the triple crown & §:

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headed, holding a serpent in each hand; “Neith, mighty lady,

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ing a serpent in each hand; the inscription is Q |Sof
! CA (t Chensu, lord of Sam-behutet.” awawa
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5. Isis, s o, o o, with the body of a hippopotamus,

holding a snake; on her head she wears a disk and horns.
6. Ptah, in the form of a squat child standing on a

pedestal with four or five steps; the inscription is D §§. --
C. so x

Ptah ser dia, “Ptah, prince, mighty . . . . . .
7. The goddess Serqet, scorpion-headed, holding a serpent

with both hands; the inscription is |o-f “Serqet,
lady of life.”
8. Goddess, wearing disk and serpent, O, on her head,
standing between two serpents; the inscription reads S-7 **H
“Nebt hetep.”
The eight scenes on the left hand side of Horus repre-
Sent :—
1. Goddess, having a disk and two scorpions on her head,
which is in the form of two serpents' heads, standing on a
crocodile; she holds a serpent in her right hand, and a
serpent and a scorpion in the left ; on the crocodile's head is
a bird. The inscription reads, SE e; H ~ F ! 5.
2. Crocodile, with disk and horns, on a stand ; behind it
* CA - - - - Z-
a serpent Usert, {& The inscription reads.ji= “great

god. . . . . .
3. Isis suckling Horus among papyrus plants, under a

canopy formed by two serpents, called Nechebet + J o and Uatchet |S. wearing the crown of Upper and Lower

Scenes on a cippus of Horus.


Late date of cippi of Horus.

Egypt respectively; under each serpent is a scorpion. The
inscription reads jS -ze. if, “Isis, lady of Cheb.”
4. Crocodile-headed god Sebek || ||= seated. This

scene is rendered incomplete by a break in the cippus.
5. Hawk-headed god wearing the crown of Lower Egypt,

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6. Hawk of Horus Šs wearing horns and plumes !,

standing on son; behind him is Q &en, and a goddess, wearing disk and horns, and having the body of a scorpion,

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7. Horus, in the form of a boy, holding ^\ over his left shoulder, seated on a crocodile, under a canopy formed by two

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Egypt, on a papyrus sceptre ; behind her Hu - and Sau
Z-3, each holding a knife.
Above the two crocodiles on which Horus stands are two
small scenes in each of which is a crocodile, one being on a
stand; that to the right of Horus has on his head – Q- and

that on the left 4); the former is called j *~,

“Hidden is his name,” and the latter Ş-H. C, “Horus
in Uu.”
The inscription, which covers the front and base of the
pedestal and back and sides of the cippus, contains an
invocation to the god from whom the person for whom it
was made seeks to gain power.
Cippi of Horus belong probably to the period which
followed soon after the end of the rule of the XXVIth
dynasty over Egypt, and the inscriptions on them are badly
executed. They are generally found broken in half, or if
not broken, the head of Horus has been hammered to deface
the features; these injuries probably date from ancient times.


The largest and finest specimen of the cippi of Horus is that preserved in the Museum of Metternich Castle at Königswarth in Bohemia. It was found in the beginning of this century at Alexandria during the building of a fountain in a Franciscan convent there, and was given to Prince Metternich by Muhammad ‘Ali in 1828. It is made of a hard, darkgreen stone upon which the figures of the gods and the inscriptions are finely and beautifully cut. The inscriptions have much in common with the magical texts inscribed upon papyri in London, Turin, and Paris, and are of great interest; this stele was made for Nectanebus I., about B.C. 370. A fac-simile of the stele and the text was published with a German translation and notes by W. Golenischeff, Die Metternichstele . . . . gum ersten Mal herausgegeben, Leipzig, 1877. A long article is devoted to the consideration of the cippi of Horus by Lanzone, Digionario, pp. 583–594; and see Birch in Arundale and Bonomi, Gallery of Antiquities, p. 39 ff.


The ancient Egyptians had :—I. The vague, or civil year, which consisted of 360 days; it was divided into twelve months of thirty days each, and five intercalary days * were added at the end. II. The Sothic year of 365+ days. The first year of a Sothic period began with the rising of Sirius or the dog-star, on the 1st of the month Thoth, when it coincided with the beginning of the inundation. III. The solar year, which was practically the same as the civil year, and which was a quarter of a day shorter than the Sothic year, an error which corrected itself in 1460 fixed years or 1461 vague years. The true year was estimated approximately by the conjunction of the sun with Sirius. Dr. Brugsch

' The whole subject of the origin of the Egyptian year has recently been discussed with excellent results in Mature, Vol. XLV., 1892, p. 487, by Prof. N. Lockyer ; and Vol. XLVI., p. 104 f.

* Called in Egyptian | f ai o, “five days over the year.” The first was called the “birth of Osiris,” the second “the birth of Horus,” the third “the birth of Set,” the fourth “the birth of Isis,” and the fifth the “birth of Nephthys.” The Greeks called these days, rayóueval outpat nevre, and the

Copts rtiz floor IUKO's XI, “the little month.”

The Metternich stele.

thinks (Egypt under the Pharaohs, Vol. II., p. 17) that as early as B.C. 25oo four different forms of the year were already in use, and that the “little year” corresponded with the lunar year, and the “great year” with a lunar year having intercalated days." The divisions of time of the

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* The days for the beginnings of these months were first fixed at Alexandria about B.C. 30.

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