« PreviousContinue »
2. Ibis-headed god, Thoth, e===", “lord of Chemennu, lord of divine words,” and the god Her-shef <> =. hawk-headed, wearing the triple crown & §:
headed, holding a serpent in each hand; “Neith, mighty lady,
ing a serpent in each hand; the inscription is Q |Sof
5. Isis, s o, o o, with the body of a hippopotamus,
holding a snake; on her head she wears a disk and horns.
pedestal with four or five steps; the inscription is D §§. --
Ptah ser dia, “Ptah, prince, mighty . . . . . .
with both hands; the inscription is |o-f “Serqet,
god. . . . . .
canopy formed by two serpents, called Nechebet + J o and Uatchet |S. wearing the crown of Upper and Lower
Scenes on a cippus of Horus.
Late date of cippi of Horus.
Egypt respectively; under each serpent is a scorpion. The
scene is rendered incomplete by a break in the cippus.
6. Hawk of Horus Šs wearing horns and plumes !,
standing on son; behind him is Q &en, and a goddess, wearing disk and horns, and having the body of a scorpion,
7. Horus, in the form of a boy, holding ^\ over his left shoulder, seated on a crocodile, under a canopy formed by two
Egypt, on a papyrus sceptre ; behind her Hu - and Sau
that on the left 4); the former is called j *~,
“Hidden is his name,” and the latter Ş-H. C, “Horus
The largest and finest specimen of the cippi of Horus is that preserved in the Museum of Metternich Castle at Königswarth in Bohemia. It was found in the beginning of this century at Alexandria during the building of a fountain in a Franciscan convent there, and was given to Prince Metternich by Muhammad ‘Ali in 1828. It is made of a hard, darkgreen stone upon which the figures of the gods and the inscriptions are finely and beautifully cut. The inscriptions have much in common with the magical texts inscribed upon papyri in London, Turin, and Paris, and are of great interest; this stele was made for Nectanebus I., about B.C. 370. A fac-simile of the stele and the text was published with a German translation and notes by W. Golenischeff, Die Metternichstele . . . . gum ersten Mal herausgegeben, Leipzig, 1877. A long article is devoted to the consideration of the cippi of Horus by Lanzone, Digionario, pp. 583–594; and see Birch in Arundale and Bonomi, Gallery of Antiquities, p. 39 ff.
THE EGYPTIAN YEAR."
The ancient Egyptians had :—I. The vague, or civil year, which consisted of 360 days; it was divided into twelve months of thirty days each, and five intercalary days * were added at the end. II. The Sothic year of 365+ days. The first year of a Sothic period began with the rising of Sirius or the dog-star, on the 1st of the month Thoth, when it coincided with the beginning of the inundation. III. The solar year, which was practically the same as the civil year, and which was a quarter of a day shorter than the Sothic year, an error which corrected itself in 1460 fixed years or 1461 vague years. The true year was estimated approximately by the conjunction of the sun with Sirius. Dr. Brugsch
' The whole subject of the origin of the Egyptian year has recently been discussed with excellent results in Mature, Vol. XLV., 1892, p. 487, by Prof. N. Lockyer ; and Vol. XLVI., p. 104 f.
* Called in Egyptian | f ai o, “five days over the year.” The first was called the “birth of Osiris,” the second “the birth of Horus,” the third “the birth of Set,” the fourth “the birth of Isis,” and the fifth the “birth of Nephthys.” The Greeks called these days, rayóueval outpat nevre, and the
Copts rtiz floor IUKO's XI, “the little month.”
The Metternich stele.
thinks (Egypt under the Pharaohs, Vol. II., p. 17) that as early as B.C. 25oo four different forms of the year were already in use, and that the “little year” corresponded with the lunar year, and the “great year” with a lunar year having intercalated days." The divisions of time of the