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The largest and finest specimen of the cippi of Horus is The Metthat preserved in the Museum of Metternich Castle at Königs- ternich
stele. warth in Bohemia. It was found in the beginning of this century at Alexandria during the building of a fountain in a Franciscan convent there, and was given to Prince Metternich by Muḥammad 'Ali in 1828. It is made of a hard, darkgreen stone upon which the figures of the gods and the inscriptions are finely and beautifully cut. The inscriptions have much in common with the magical texts inscribed upon papyri in London, Turin, and Paris, and are of great interest; this stele was made for Nectanebus I., about B.C. 370. A fac-simile of the stele and the text was published with a German translation and notes by W. Golenischeff, Die Metternichstele .... zum ersten Mal herausgegeben, Leipzig, 1877. A long article is devoted to the consideration of the cippi of Horus by Lanzone, Dizionario, pp. 583-594; and see Birch in Arundale and Bonomi, Gallery of Antiquities, p. 39 ff.
THE EGYPTIAN YEAR. 1
The ancient Egyptians had :-1. The vague, or civil year, which consisted of 360 days; it was divided into twelve months of thirty days each, and five intercalary days were added at the end. II. The Sothic year of 3651 days. The first year of a Sothic period began with the rising of Sirius or the dog-star, on the ist of the month Thoth, when it coincided with the beginning of the inundation. III. The solar year, which was practically the same as the civil year, and which was a quarter of a day shorter than the Sothic year, an error which corrected itself in 1460 fixed years or 1461 vague years. The true year was estimated approximately by the conjunction of the sun with Sirius. Dr. Brugsch
The whole subject of the origin of the Egyptian year has recently been discussed with excellent results in Nolure, Vol. XLV., 1892, p. 487, by Prof. N. Lockyer ; and Vol. XLVI., p. 104 ff. a Called in Egyptian ill ile ili
“five days over the year.” The first was called the “birth of Osiris," the second “the birth of Horus," the third “the birth of Set," the fourth “the birth of Isis," and the fifth the birth of Nephthys.” The Greeks called these days, é'rayóuevaı ýmipau névre, and the Copts Ms& BoT MKOTXI,“ the little month."
thinks (Egypt under the Pharaohs, Vol. II., p. 17) that as early as B.C. 2500 four different forms of the year were already in use, and that the “little year” corresponded with the lunar year, and the “great year” with a lunar year having intercalated days. The divisions of time of the Egyptians were
ant, “one-sixtieth of a second," łat, “second," at, “minute," unnut, "hour," o hru, “day,” åbet, “ month,”
, “year," sed, period of thirty years,” † hen, “ period,” ly heh, “millions of years,” lo hell, and
t'etta,“ immeasurable time,” or eternity." The Egyptian week consisted of ten days on.
See Lepsius, Die Chronologie der Aegypter, p. 147 ff.
of sowing. Months 1-4 of the season of Months 1-4 of the season coming forth, or growing.
ne pecorte pepelover Dapuovoi ysger!
* The days for the beginnings of these months were first fixed at Alexandria about B.C. 30.
1 See Eisenlohr, Ein mathematisches Handbuch der alten Aegypter, Leipzig, 1877,
P. 5 f.
? For the variants see Stern, Koptische Grammatik, p. 131 ff.