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PTOLEMIES.

Ptolemy I., Soter, son of Lagus, founded the Alexandrian Library. Ptolemy II., Philadelphus, built the Pharos, founded Berenice on the Red Sea, and Arsinoë ; he employed Manetho to compile a history of Egypt and its gods from native authorities, and caused the Greek version of the Old Testament to be made. Ptolemy III., Euergetes I. Ptolemy IV., Philopator, founded the temple of Edfü. Ptolemy V., Epiphanes. Ptolemy VI., Eupator, died in this year. Ptolemy VII., Philometor. Ptolemy VIII., murdered by Physcon. Ptolemy IX, Euergetes II. or Physcon, reigned conjointly with Ptolemy VII. (B.C. 170–165). Ptolemy X., Soter II., Philometor II., or Lathyrus reigned conjointly with Cleopatra III. ; he was banished B.C. 106, and recalled B.C. 87. Ptolemy XI., Alexander I., made co-regent. He was banished B.C. 89 and slain B.C. 87. Ptolemy XII., Alexander II., is slain. Ptolemy XIII., Neos Dionysos or Auletes, became king of Egypt; he died B.C. 52. Ptolemy XIV, Dionysos II., banished his co-regent Cleopatra VII., Caesar arrived in Egypt to support Cleopatra, and Ptolemy XIV. was drowned. Ptolemy XV., brother of Cleopatra VII., appointed her coregent; he was murdered at her wish. Ptolemy XVI., Caesarion, was named co-regent. Antony ordered Cleopatra to appear before him, and was seduced by her charms; he killed himself, and Cleopatra died by the bite of an asp.

ROMANS. Caesar Augustus became master of the Roman Empire, and Cornelius Gallus the first prefect of Egypt; under the third prefect, Aelius Gallus, Candace, Queen of the Ethiopians, invaded Egypt, but was defeated.

. D.

Tiberius. In his reign Germanicus went to Egypt, sailing ". up the Nile from the city of Canopus to Thebes, where he visited the temples of Luxor and Karnak, and heard the priest read on the pylons the names of conquered nations which still exist on them by the score. Passing over to the other side of the river, Tacitus tells us (II., 61) that he saw the stone image of Memnon, which, when struck by the sun's rays, gave out the sound of a human voice, and there is little Germani. doubt that he visited the Tombs of the Kings, the Ramesseum ...” and the temples at Medinet Habú. He passed on to Syene, Egypt. where he visited the island of Elephantine, and either going up or coming down the river, he saw Lake Moeris and the

Pyramids.

Caligula. 37 Claudius. 4I Nero. In his reign Christianity was first preached in 55 Egypt by Saint Mark. The Blemmyes made raids upon the oye. southern frontier of Egypt. Egypt. Vespasian. Jerusalem destroyed, A.D. 70. 69 Domitian builds temples to Isis and Serapis at Rome. 82

Trajan. The Amnis Trajanus, or canal which joined the 98 Nile and Red Sea, re-opened.

Hadrian. He visited Egypt twice. 117 Marcus Aurelius. I61 Commodus. 180 Septimius Severus. I93

Caracalla visited Egypt, and caused a large number of 211 young men to be massacred in Alexandria.

Macrinus. 217 Elagabalus. 218 Decius. 249 Valerianus. 253 Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, invaded Egypt. 268 Aurelian. Zenobia dethroned A.D. 273. 27o Probus. 276

Diocletian. “Pompey's Pillar” erected A.D. 302. The 284 Copts date the era of the Martyrs from the day of Diocletian's accession to the throne (August 29).

Constantine the Great. 324

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638 Arab conquest of Egypt.

1517

1798
1801
1805
1848

1849
1854

1863

1882

1885
1892

Constantius. Theodosius I., the Great, proclaimed Christianity the religion of his empire.

BYZANTINES.

Arcadius, Emperor of the East.

Theodosius II.

Marcianus. In this reign Silco invaded Egypt, with his Nubian followers.

Zeno.

Anastasius.

Justinian.

Heraclius expelled the Persians from Egypt after they had held it, under Chosroes, for ten years.

MUHAMMADANS.

‘Amr ibn el-‘Āsi conquers Egypt, and the country becomes
a part of the Muhammadan empire for about nine hundred
years.
Selim I., of Constantinople, deposes Tūmān Bey, and
Egypt becomes a Turkish Pashalik. -
Napoleon Bonaparte stormed Alexandria, battle of the
Pyramids, and French fleet destroyed off Abukir by the
English.
The French compelled by the English to evacuate Egypt.
Muhammad ‘Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt.
Ibrāhīm Pasha.
Death of Muhammad ‘Ali.
Såid Pasha. During his reign the Bâlâk Museum was
founded, and the excavation of the Suez Canal began.
Ismāīl, son of Ibrāhīm Pasha, made Khedive. Sue.
Canal opened, 1869.
Massacre of Europeans at Alexandria, bombardment of
the town by the English fleet in July; Egypt was occupied
by English troops, and ‘Arabi Pasha defeated.
Murder of Gordon, and abandonment of the Südân.
English troops continue to occupy Egypt.

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* See J. de Rougé, Géog. Ancienne de la Basse Egypte, Paris, 1891.

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