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LIST OF THE CART OU C H E S

OF THE PRINCIPAL

E G Y PT I AN KING S.

The oval CD in which a name of a royal person is written, is called cartouche. The first oval contains the prenomen, and the second the name ; these are quite distinct

from his titles. 4% suten net, placed before the prenomen, means “King of the North and South,” and %3 se R.7 means “Son of the Sun.” Other common titles are v-z == neb taui, “lord of two lands,” Şs Horus, o “the golden

Horus,” % “lord of diadems,” 53 – “mighty bull,” ! “beautiful god," etc., etc. The title Pharaoh Hyne finds its origin in F, or HF, or per åa, “great house.” In the early dynasties kings' i names were very simple in form, and consisted often of the prenomen only. In addition to the pre- nomen and name a

king often had what is termed a “banner” name, which was written in a rectangular enclosure; e.g.:

Şs Heru ka next ur peh peh, “Horus, mighty bull, great of valour,” formed the “banner” name of

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his prenomen ; and e-d- Amenhetep meter heg Annu, " Amenophis, god, prince of Heliopolis,” was his name. Each prenomen and name had a meaning, but many of these are very difficult

to translate.

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* Manetho's grouping of the kings into dynasties is only used here for convenience; the ancient Egyptians had no such division.

+ Though G) Rā is generally placed first in the cartouche, it is generally to be read last.

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