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vel on foot, and on the wagons of the peasantry, until they could reach their exiled brother in Siberia.
In Poland, a son has two shares of an estate, and a daughter but one; a father cannot dispose of his fortune otherwise, except by a judicial sentence.
The Germans are less susceptible than the French, but have more depth of passion. Among them there is little of that instantaneous falling in love, so common among the Italians and Poles; but their affections are gained by solid and true qualities. They have more sobriety than the French, and more frankness than the English. Living for happiness rather than pleasure, they attach all due sacredness to that good English word home, the spirit of which is so little understood by the southern nations. The women of all classes are distinguished for industry. It is a common practice to carry needlework into parties; and sometimes a notable dame may be seen knitting diligently at the theatre. Many of the young Swabian girls, of thirteen or fourteen years old, are sent to Stuttgard, to acquire music, or other branches of education, among which household duties are generally included. A matron, who keeps a large establishment there, gives the instruction, which they voluntarily seek. They may often be seen returning from the baker's, with a tray full of cakes and pies of their own making; and sometimes young gentlemen, for the sake of fun, stop them to buy samples of their cookery.
Injustice is always done to nations by describing them in general terms; and this is peculiarly the case with Germany; for both men and women are remarkable for individuality of character. It may, however, be truly said that German women are usually disposed to keep within the precincts of domestic life, and are little ambitious of display. Their influence on literature is important, though less obvious than in some other countries. In almost every considerable town, a few literary families naturally fall into the habit of meeting at each other's houses alternately, and thus, without pretension, form social clubs, of which intelligent and learned women are often the brightest ornaments. Their female writers have usually belonged to the higher classes; others being too much employed in domestic avocations to attend to literature. Several of these writers are such as any nation might be proud to own. Among the most distinguished are Theresa Huber, daughter of the celebrated Heyne, in Göttingen; Madame Schoppenhauer; and Baronne de la Motte Fouqué.
The women of Germany and Austria have, in general, fair complexions, auburn hair, large blue eyes, and a mild, ingenuous expression of countenance. There is a good deal of innocent freedom in their deportment, but so tempered with modest simplicity, that they receive respect without the necessity of requiring it. They are in general exemplary wives, and excellent mothers. Divorce has never been sanctioned by Austrian laws.
Both Germans and Austrians are said to have great pride of high birth. The poor are simple and gentle in their manners, very neat in their dress, and indus. trious in their habits; but in some of the provinces the peasantry, both men and women, are addicted to intemperance. The young men of Vienna are accused of being more fond of riding, hunting, good eating, and smoking, than of joining the parties of ladies. A foreigner is somewhat surprised to see on such occasions thirty or forty ladies, talking together, and engaged in various kinds of needlework, without attracting, or seeming to expect, attention from their countrymen.
The people who inhabit the vast extent of country between the Black sea and the North sea are divided into various distinct races, too numerous to admit of a particular description. The women are generally very industrious; even in their walks they carry a portable distaff and spin every step of the way. Generally speaking, the clothing of these people is of domestic manufacture; the wants of each family being supplied by the diligent fingers of its female members. A Walachian woman may often be seen carrying a large basket of goods to market on her head, singing and spinning as she trudges along. Both Croatian and Walachian women perform all the agricultural operations, in addition to their own domestic concerns. When a mother goes to church, or to visit a neighbor, or to labor in the fields, she carries her infant in a low open box, swung over her shoulders by cords; while she is at work, this box is suspended on a neighboring tree. The Liburnian women carry on their heads a cradle, in which the babe sleeps securely. When these cradles are set on the ground, they rock with the slightest impulsion. The Gothscheer women often follow the trade of pedlers, and are absent from their homes many, months, travelling about the country with staff in hand, and a pack at their back.
Among these numercus tribes, each preserving their ancient customs from time immemorial, the Morlachians seem to be the most rude. “In general,” says M. Fortis, "their women, except those of the towns, seem not at all displeased to receive a beating from their husbands, and sometimes even from their lovers." Being treated like beasts of burden, and expected to endure submissively every species of hardship, they naturally become very dirty and careless in their habits. The wretched wife, after she has labored hard all day, is obliged to lie upon the floor, and would be beaten, if she presumed to approach the heap of straw on which her tyrant sleeps. When the Morlachians have occasion to speak of a woman, before any respectable person, they always say, “ saving your presence;" as if apologizing for the mention of things so disgusting; and in answer to inquiries reply, “It is my wife-excuse the word.”
From these brutes in the human form, we gladly turn to the frank, affectionate, romantic Tyrolese. Among these simple, virtuous people, husbands and wives are remarkably faithful to each other, and fondly attached to their children. Their robust and vigorous women are engaged in very toilsome occupations, but the men take their full share in all labo
rious tasks. Many of them travel through Germany as pedlers, and they are rarely seen without a wife or a sister by their side. The Tyrolese women are gentle and modest, but not shy in the presence of strangers. A mother, in the innocent kindness of her heart, frequently sends her daughters to meet a traveller, and offer bim a present of fruit or flowers, or a draught of sweet milk, from her own neat dairy. Their affections are ardent, and they are proverbial for constancy. It is an almost unheard of thing for parents to arrange marriages, or attempt to throw any obstacle in the way of a desired union between their children. The young people become acquainted with each other in their walks, or at their rustic amusements, and when they have once taken each other by the hand, in earnest pledge of their mutual affection, every other man and woman in the world are forever after excluded from their thoughts, so far as love is concerned. The Tyrolese have a reverent and simple faith in religion, and a strong belief in the active agency of good and evil spirits. The peasant girls scarcely dare to go abroad after dark, for fear of fall. ing into snares laid by mischievous spirits. To protect themselves from these influences, it is common for both sexes to engrave the figure of Christ upon their flesh, by pricking it with a needle and rubbing gunpowder into the punctures.
The Swiss resemble the Tyrolese in simplicity, frankness, and honesty. The women are very neat and industrious. They are busily engaged in their dairies and domestic avocations, and are litile in