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with the ears and mane ; and the mane served instead of a crest, and the horses' ears were fixed erect; and as defensive armour they used the skins of cranes instead of shields. 71. The Libyans marched, clad in leathern garments, and made use of javelins hardened by fire. They had for their general, Massages, son of Oarizus. 72. The Paphlagonians joined the expedition, wearing on their heads plaited helmets, and carried small shields, and not large spears; and besides, javelins and daggers : and on their feet they wore boots, peculiar to their country, reaching up to the middle of the leg. The Ligyes and the Matienians, the Mariandynians and Syrians, marched in the same dress as the Paphlagonians. These Syrians are called by the Persians, Cappadocians. Now Dotus, son of Megasidrus, commanded the Paphlagonians and Matienians ; and Gobryas, son of Darius and Artystone, the Mariandynians, Ligyes, and Syrians. 73. The Phrygians had very nearly the same dress as that of Paphlagonia, varying it a little. The Phrygians, as the Macedonians say, were called Briges, as long as they were Europeans, and dwelt with the Macedonians; but having passed over into Asia, they changed their name with their country, into that of Phrygians. The Armenians, being colonists of the Phrygians, were equipped like the Phrygians. Artochmes, who had married a daughter of Darius, commanded both these. 74. The Lydians had arms very like the Grecian. The Lydians were formerly called Mežonians, but took their appellation from Lydus the son of Atys, having changed their name. The Mysians wore on their heads a helmet peculiar to their country, and small shields ; and they used javelins hardened by fire. They are colonists of the Lydians, and from the mountain Olympus are called Olympieni. Artaphernes, son of Artaphernes who invaded Marathon with Datis, commanded the Lydians and Mysians. 75. The Thracians joined the expedition, having fox-skins on their heads, and tunics around their body, and over them they were clothed with various-coloured cloaks, and on their feet and legs they had buskins of fawn-skin, and besides they had javelins, light bucklers, and small daggers. These people having crossed over into Asia, were called Bithynians; but formerly, as they themselves say, were called Strymonians, as they dwelt on the river Strymon : they say that they were removed from their original settlements by the

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Teucrians and Mysians. Bassaces, son of Artabanus, commanded the Thracians of Asia. 76. The * small shields made of raw hides, and each had two javelins used for hunting wolves, and on their heads brazen helmets ; and in addition to the helmets they wore the ears and horns of an ox in brass. And over these were crests; and as to their legs, they were enwrapped in pieces of purple cloth. Among these people there is an oracle of Mars. 77. The Cabalian Mesonians, who are also called Lasonians, had the same dress as the Cilicians ; which I shall describe when I come to speak of the army of the Cilicians. The Milyæ had short lances, and their garments were fastened by clasps. Some of them had Lycian bows, and on their heads helmets made of tanned skins. Badres, son of Hystanes, commanded all these. 78. The Moschians had on their heads wooden helmets, and small bucklers, and spears ; but there were large points on the spears. The Tibarenians, Macrones, and Mosynæci joined the expedition equipped as the Moschians. The following generals marshalled these: the Moschians and Tibarenians, Ariomardus, son of Darius and Parmys, daughter of Smerdis, son of Cyrus ; the Macrones and Mosynæci, Artayctes, son of Cherasmis, who was intrusted with the government of Sestos on the Hellespont. 79. The Mares wore helmets on their heads, painted after the manner of their country; and small shields made of skin, and javelins. The Colchians had about their heads wooden helmets, and small shields of raw hides, and short lances ; and besides they had swords. Pherendates, son of Teaspes, commanded the Mares and Colchians. The Alarodi and the Saspires marched armed like the Colchians ; Masistius, son of Siromitres, commanded them. 80. The insular nations that came from the Erythræan Sea, and from the islands in which the king makes those dwell who are called “ the banished,” had clothing and arms very similar to the Medic. Mardontes, son of Bagæus, who, when commanding the army at Mycale, two years after this, died in battle, commanded these islanders.

81. These were the nations that marched on the continent, and composed the infantry. They, then, who have been mentioned commanded this army, and these were they who set in

There is an hiatus in the manuscripts, which the ingenuity of annotators and editors has been unable to supply.

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order, and numbered them, and appointed commanders of thousands and of ten thousands. But the commanders of ten thousands appointed the captains of hundreds and captains of tens. There were other subaltern officers over the troops and nations, but those who have been mentioned were the commanders. 82. Over these and the whole infantry were appointed as generals, Mardonius, son of Gobryas ; Tritantæchmes, son of Artabanus, who gave his opinion against the invasion of Greece ; Smerdomenes, son of Otanes ; (both these were sons to brothers of Darius, and cousins to Xerxes ;) Masistes, son of Darius and Atossa ; Gergis, son of Arizus ; and Megabyzus, son of Zopyrus. 83. These were generals of the whole land-forces, except the ten thousand ; of these ten thousand chosen Persians, Hydarnes, son of Hydarnes, was general. These Persians were called Immortal, for the following reason: if any one of them made a deficiency in the number, compelled either by death or disease, another was ready chosen to supply his place; so that they were never cither more or less than ten thousand. The Persians displayed the greatest splendour of all, and were also the bravest ; their equipment was such as has been described ; but besides this, they were conspicuous from having a great profusion of gold. They also brought with them covered chariots, and concubines in them, and a numerous and well-equipped train of attendants. Camels and other beasts of burden conveyed their provisions, apart from that of the rest of the soldiers.

84. All these nations have cavalry; they did not, however, all furnish horse, but only the following. First, the Persians, equipped in the same manner as their infantry, except that on their heads some of them wore brazen and wrought steel ornaments. 85. There is a certain nomadic race, called Sagartians, of Persian extraction and language, they wear a dress fashioned between the Persian and the Pactyan fashion ; they furnished eight thousand horse, but they are not accustomed to carry arms either of brass or iron, except daggers: they use ropes made of twisted thongs ; trusting to these they go to war. The mode of fighting of these men is as follows: when they engage with the enemy they throw out the ropes, which have nooses at the end, and whatever any one catches, whether horse or man, he drags towards himself; and they that are entangled in the coils are put to death. This is their

mode of fighting; and they were marshalled with the Persians. 86. The Medes had the same equipment as that used in the infantry; and the Cissians in like manner. The Indians were also equipped like their infantry, but they used saddlehorses and chariots; and in their chariots they yoked horses and wild asses. The Bactrians were equipped in the same manner as their infantry, and the Caspians likewise. The Libyans too were accoutred like their infantry; but they all drove chariots. In like manner the Caspiri and Paricanii were equipped in the same way as their infantry. And the Arabians had the same dress as their infantry, but all rode camels not inferior to horses in speed. 87. These nations only furnished cavalry. The number of the horse amounted to eighty thousand, besides the camels and chariots. All the rest of the cavalry were marshalled in troops ; but the Arabians were stationed in the rear : for as horses cannot endure camels, they were stationed behind, that the horses might not be frightened. 88. Armamithres and Tithæus, sons of Datis, were generals of the cavalry. Their third colleague in command, Pharnuches, had been left at Sardis sick. For as they were setting out from Sardis he met with a sad accident. For when he was mounted, a dog ran under the legs of his horse, and the horse, not being aware of it, was frightened, and rearing up, threw Pharnuches; upon which he, having fallen, vomited blood, and the disease turned to a consumption. With respect to the horse, his servants immediately did as he ordered; for leading him to the place where he had thrown his master, they cut off his legs at the knees. Thus Pharnuches was deprived of the command.

89. The number of the triremes amounted to twelve hundred and seven ; the following nations furnished them. The Phænicians, with the Syrians of Palestine, furnished three hundred, being thus equipped : on their heads they had helmets, made very nearly after the Grecian fashion; and clothed in linen breastplates, they carried shields without rims, and javelins. These Phænicians, as they themselves say, anciently dwelt on the Red Sea ; and having crossed over from thence, they settled on the sea-coast of Syria ; this part of Syria, and the whole as far as Egypt, is called Palestine. The Egyptians contributed two hundred ships. These had on their heads plaited helmets, and carried hollow shields, with large rims,

and pikes fit for a sea-fight, and large hatchets. The greater part of them had breastplates, and carried large swords. 90. The Cyprians contributed a hundred and fifty ships, and were equipped as follows: their kings had their heads wrapped in turbans; the rest wore tunics, and were in other respects attired like the Greeks. Of these there are the following nations, some from Salamis and Athens ; others from Arcadia ; others from Cythnus; others from Phænicia ; and others from Ethiopia, as the Cyprians themselves say. 91. The Cilicians contributed a hundred ships. These, again, wore on their heads helmets peculiar to their country, and had bucklers instead of shields, made of raw hides, and were clothed in woollen tunics; every one had two javelins, and a sword made very much like the Egyptian scimetars. They were anciently called Hypachæans, and took their present name from Cilix, son of Agenor, a Phe nician. The Pamphylians contributed thirty ships, and were equipped in Grecian armour. These Pamphylians are descended from those who, in their return from Troy, were dispersed with Amphilochus and Calchas. 92. The Lycians contributed fifty ships, and wore breastplates and greaves. They bad bows made of cornel-wood, and cane arrows without feathers, and javelins; and besides, goat-skins were suspended over their shoulders ; and round their beads caps encircled with feathers; they had also daggers and falchions. The Lycians were called Termilæ, being sprung from Crete, but took their present name from Lycus, son of Pandion, an Athenian. 93. The Dorians of Asia contributed thirty ships, wearing Grecian armour, and sprung from the Peloponnesus. The Carians contributed seventy ships, and were in other respects accoutred like the Greeks, but had falchions and daggers. What these were formerly called I have mentioned in the first part of my history. 94. The Ionians contributed a hundred ships, and were equipped as Greeks. The Ionians, as long as they inhabited that part of the Peloponnesus which is now called Achaia, and before Danaus and Xuthus arrived in the Pelo ponnesus, as the Greeks say, were called Pelasgian Ægialees ; but Ionians from Ion, son of Xuthus. 95. The Islanders contributed seventeen ships, and were armed like the Greeks. This race is also Pelasgic, but was afterwards called Ionian for the same reason as the Ionians of the twelve cities, who came

• See B. I. chap. 171.

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