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encompasses flowing from Cithæron, they would on the same night send away one half of their forces to Cithæron, in order to bring in the attendants who had gone for provisions ; for they were shut up in Cithæron. 52. Having taken these resolutions, during the whole of that day, they suffered inces. sant labour by the cavalry pressing on them ; but when the day ended, and the cavalry had ceased to attack them, night hav. ing come, and it being the hour at which they had agreed to decamp, thereupon the greater part taking up their arms marched away, without any intention of going to the place agreed upon : whilst others, as soon as they were put in motion, gladly fled from the cavalry towards the city of the Platæans; and in their flight they arrived at the temple of Juno: it stands before the city of the Platæans, twenty stades distant from the fountain of Gargaphia ; and having arrived there, they stood to their arms before the sacred precinct. 53. They then encamped round the Heræum ; and Pausanias, seeing them departing from the camp, ordered the Lacedæmonians also to take up their arms and go in the same direction as the others, supposing they were going to the place which they had agreed to go to. Whereupon all the other commanders of troops were ready to obey Pausanias ; but Amompharetus, son of Poliades, captain of the band of Pitanetæ, said, “he would not fly from the foreigners, nor willingly bring disgrace on Sparta ;” and he was astonished at seeing what was being done, because he had not been present at the preceding conference. Pausanias and Euryanax considered it a disgrace that he should not obey them, but still more disgraceful, when he7 had so resolved, to forsake the band of Pitanetæ, lest if they should forsake him in order to do what they had agreed on with the rest of the Grecians, Amompharetus himself, being left behind, and those with him should perish. Considering these things, they kept the Laconian forces unmoved, and endeavoured to persuade him that it was not right for him to do as he did.

54. They, then, were expostulating with Amompharetus, who alone of the Lacedæmonians and Tegeans was left behind. But the Athenians did as follows: they kept themselves unmoved where they had been stationed, knowing the dispositions of the Lacedæmonians, who purpose one thing and say

? Amompharetus.

another. When, therefore, the army was in motion, they sent one of their horsemen to see whether the Spartans were beginning to depart, or whether they did not intend to depart at all; and to inquire of Pausanias what it was right to do. 55. When the herald came up to the Lacedæmonians, he saw them drawn up in the same spot, and their chiefs engaged in disputes. For when Euryanax and Pausanias urged Amompharetus not to incur danger by remaining with his men alone of all the Lacedæmonians, they were by no means able to prevail with him, until they fell into an open quarrel; and the herald of the Athenians having come up stood by them. And Amompharetus quarrelling, took up a stone with both his hands, and laying it down at the feet of Pausanias, said, “With this pebble I give my vote, not to fly from the foreigners;" by foreigners meaning the barbarians. But Pausanias, calling bim a mad-man and out of his senses, then turned to the herald of the Athenians, who was making the inquiry he had been ordered to make, and bade him inform them of the present posture of affairs, and entreated the Athenians to come over to them, and act, in relation to the departure, just as they should. 56. He accordingly went back to the Athenians. But when morning found them still disputing with one another, Pausanias, having stayed during all that time, and supposing (as indeed happened) that Amompharetus would not stay behind when the rest of the Lacedæmonians were gone, having given the signal, led all the rest away along the hills ; and the Tegeans followed. But the Athenians, drawn up in order of battle, marched by a different way from the Lacedæmonians ; for they kept to the rising ground and the base of Cithæron, through fear of the cavalry; but the Athenians took their route towards the plain. 57. But Amompharetus, thinking that Pausanias would on no account dare to forsake them, was very earnest that they should remain there and not abandon their post; but when those with Pausanias had advanced some distance, supposing that they were in real earnest deserting him, he ordered his band to take up their arms, and led them slowly towards the main body; which, having marched about ten stades, waited for the band of Amompharetus, halting at the river Moloeis, at a place called Argiopius, where stands a temple of Eleusinian Ceres ; and they waited there for this reason, that if Amompharetus and his band


should not leave the post in which they had been stationed, but should remain there, they might go back to their assist

However, those with Amompharetus came up; and the whole of the barbarian's cavalry pressed upon them. For the horsemen did as they were always accustomed to do.; but seeing the place empty in which the Greeks had been drawn up on the preceding days, they pushed on continually in advance, and as soon as they overtook them, they pressed them closely.

58. Mardonius, when he was informed that the Grecians had withdrawn under cover of night, and saw the place deserted, having summoned Thorax of Larissa, and his brothers Eurypilus and Thrasydëius, said : “ O sons of Aleuas, what will you say now, when you see this ground deserted ? For you, their neighbours, said that the Lacedaemonians never fled from battle, but were the first of men in matters of war; these, whom you before saw changing their station, and who now we all see have fled away during the past night. They have clearly shown, when they had to come to the issue of battle with those who are truly the most valiant in the world, that being themselves good for nothing, they have gained distinction among worthless Greeks. And I readily forgave you, who are unacquainted with the Persians, when you extolled them by whom you knew something had been done: but I wondered more at Artabazus, that he should dread the Lacedæmonians, and dreading them, should have advanced a most cowardly opinion, that it was expedient to remove our camp, and retire to the city of the Thebans to be besieged: of this the king shall hereafter hear from me. But these matters will be discussed elsewhere. For the present, we must not suffer them to do what they intend, but they must be pursued, until they shall be overtaken, and have given us satisfaction for all the mischief they have done to the Persians.” 59. Having spoken thus, he led the Persians at full speed, crossing the Asopus in the track of the Greeks, as if they had betaken themselves to flight; he directed his course only against the Lacedæmonians and Tegeans; for on account of the hills he did not discern the Athenians, who had turned into the plain. The rest of the commanders of the barbarian's brigades, seeing the Persians advancing to pursue the Greeks, all immediately took up their standards, and pursued, each as

quick as he could, without observing either rank or order: thus they advanced with a shout and in a throng, as if they were about to overwhelm the Greeks.

60. Pausanias, when the cavalry pressed on him, having despatched a horseman to the Athenians with this message, spoke as follows: “Men of Athens, when the mighty contest lies before us, whether Greece shall be free or enslaved, we are betrayed by the allies, (both we Lacedæmonians and you Athenians,) who have fled away during the past night. It is now, therefore, determined what we must henceforth do ; for defending ourselves in the best manner we can, we must support each other. Now if the cavalry had attacked you first, it would have behoved us and the Tegeans, who with us have not betrayed Greece, to assist you. But now, since the whole body has advanced against us, you ought in justice to come to the succour of that division which is most hardly pressed. If, however, any inability to assist has befallen you, you will confer a favour on us by sending your archers to us. We are aware of your being by far the most zealous in this present war, so as in this instance to listen to our request.” 61. When the Athenians heard this, they prepared to assist, and to defend them to the utmost of their power ; but as they were already on their way, those of the Greeks who sided with the king, that were arrayed against them, attacked them, so that they were no longer able to render assistance ; for the division that pressed upon them harassed them. Thus the Lacedæmonians and Tegeans being left alone, the former with the light-armed men, amounting in number to fifty thousand, and the Tegeans to three thousand, (for these last had never separated from the Lacedæmonians,) performed sacrifices, purposing to engage with Mardonius and the forces with him. But as the victims were not favourable to them, many of them fell during this interval, and many more were wounded; for the Persians, having made a fence with their osier-shields, let fly a number of arrows so incessantly, that, the Spartans being hard pressed, and the victims continuing unfavourable, Pausanias, looking towards the temple of Juno of the Platæans, invoked the goddess, praying that they might not be disappointed of their hopes.

62. While he was yet making this invocation, the Tegeans, starting first, advanced against the barbarians; and immedi

ately after the prayer of Pausanias, the victims became favourable to the Lacedæmonians when they sacrificed. When some time had elapsed, they also advanced against the Persians, and the Persians withstood them, laying aside their bows. First of all a battle took place about the fence of bucklers; and when that was thrown down, an obstinate fight ensued near the temple of Ceres, and for a long time, till at last they came to a close conflict: for the barbarians laying hold of the enemy's spears, broke them. And indeed, in courage and strength, the Persians were not inferior ; but being lightly armed, they were moreover ignorant of military discipline, and not equal to their adversaries in skill; but rushing forward singly, or in tens, or more or fewer in a body, they fell upon the Spartans and perished. 63. In that part where Mardonius happened to be, fighting from a white horse, at the head of a thousand chosen men, the best of the Persians, there they pressed their adversaries most vigorously. For as long as Mardonius survived, they held out, and defending themselves overthrew many of the Lacedæmonians ; but when Mardonius had died, and the troops stationed round him, which were the strongest, had fallen, then the rest turned to flight, and gave way to the Lacedæmonians. Their dress, too, was particularly disadvantageous to them, being destitute of defensive armour; for being light-armed, they had to contend with heavy-armed men. 64. Here satisfaction for the death of Leonidas, according to the oracle, was paid to the Spartans by Mardonius; and Pausanias, son of Cleombrotus, son to Anaxandrides, obtained the most signal victory of all that we know of. (The names of his earlier ancestors have been mentioned in the genealogy of Leonidas ;8 for they were the same.) Mardonius died by the hand of Aïmnestus, a man of distinction at Sparta, who, some time after the Medic affairs, at the head of three hundred men, engaged at Stenyclerus with all the Messenians, there being war; and he himself perished and his three hundred. 65. The Persians at Platæa, when they were put to flight by the Lacedæmonians, fled in disorder to their own camp, and to the wooden fortification which they had made in the Theban territory. It is a wonder to me, that, when they fought near the grove of Ceres, not one of the barbarians was seen to enter into the sacred enclosure, or to die in it, but most fell

* See B. VII. chap. 204.

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