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spent ; whereupon Amasis, making a religious scruple of this, would not suffer it to be drawn


Some persons however say, that one of the men employed at the levers was crushed to death by it, and that on that account it was not drawn into the precinct. 176. Amasis dedicated in all the most famous temples works admirable for their magnitude ; and amongst them at Memphis, the reclining colossus before the temple of Vulcan, of which the length is seventy-five feet; and on the same base stand two statues of Ethiopian stone, each twenty feet in height, one on each side of the temple. There is also at Sais another similar statue, lying in the same manner as that at Memphis. It was Amasis also who built the temple to Isis at Memphis, which is spacious and well worthy of notice.

177. Under the reign of Amasis Egypt is said to have enjoyed the greatest prosperity, both in respect to the benefits derived from the river to the land, and from the land to the people ; and it is said to have contained at that time twenty thousand inhabited cities. Amasis it was who established the law among the Egyptians, that every Egyptian should annually declare to the governor of his district, by what means he maintained himself; and if he failed to do this, or did not show that he lived by honest means, he should be punished with death. Solon the Athenian, having brought this law from Egypt, established it at Athens; and that people still continue to observe it, as being an unobjectionable regulation. 178. Amasis, being partial to the Greeks, both bestowed other favours on various of the Greeks, and moreover gave the city of Naucratis for such as arrived in Egypt to dwell in ; and to such as did not wish to settle there, but only to trade by sea, he granted places where they might erect altars and temples to the gods. Now, the most spacious of these sacred buildings, which is also the most renowned and frequented, called the Hellenium, was erected at the common charge of the following cities : of the Ionians, Chios, Teos, Phocæa, and Clazomenæ ; of the Dorians, Rhodes, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, Phaselis; and of the Æolians, Mitylene alone. So that this temple belongs to them, and these cities appoint officers to preside over the mart: and whatever other cities claim a share in it, claim what does not belong to them, Besides this, the people of Ægina built a temple to Jupiter for themselves; and the Samians another to Juno, and the Milesians one to Apollo. 179. Naucratis was anciently the only place of resort for merchants, and there was no other in Egypt: and if a man arrived at any other mouth of the Nile, he was obliged to swear “ that he had come there against his will ;” and having taken such an oath, he must sail in the same ship to the Canopic mouth ; but if he should be prevented by contrary winds from doing so, he was forced to unload his goods, and carry them in barges round the Delta until he reached Naucratis. So great were the privileges of Naucratis. 180. When the Amphyctions contracted to build the temple that now stands at Delphi for three hundred talents, (for the temple that was formerly there had been burnt by accident, and it fell upon the Delphians to supply & fourth part of the sum,) the Delphians went about from city to city and solicited contributions; and doing this they brought home no small amount from Egypt. For Amasis gave

them a thousand talents of alum, and the Grecians who were settled in Egypt twenty minæ.

181. Amasis also contracted a friendship and an alliance with the Cyrenæans; and resolved to take a wife from that country, either out of a desire of having a Grecian woman, or from some peculiar affection to the Cyrenæans. He therefore married, as some say, the daughter of Battus ; others, of Arcesilaus; though others, of Critobulus, a person of distinction among the citizens; her name was Ladice. Whenever Amasis lay with her he was unable to have connexion with her, which was not the case with respect to other women : upon the continuance of this for a long time, Amasis said to this woman, who was called Ladice ; “O woman, you have used charms against me, and no contrivance can prevent your perishing by the most cruel death of all women. dice, finding that Amasis was not at all appeased by her denial of the fact, made a mental vow to Venus, that if Amasis should have intercourse with her that night, (for this was the only remedy left,) she would send a statue of the goddess to Cyrene. Immediately after the vow, Amasis had intercourse with her; and from that time forward, whenever he came to her, he was able to have connexion ; and after this he was exceedingly fond of her. But Ladice performed her vow to the goddess, for having caused a statue to be made, she sent it to

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Cyrene, and it was still safe in my time, facing out of the city of Cyrene. When Cambyses had conquered Egypt, and learnt who this Ladice was, he sent her back unharmed to Cyrene. 182. Amasis also dedicated offerings in Greece. In the first place, a gilded statue of Minerva at Cyrene, and his own portrait painted; secondly, to Minerva in Lindus two stone statues and a linen corselet well worthy of notice ; thirdly, to Juno at Samos two images of himself carved in wood, which stood in the large temple even in my time, behind the doors. Now he made this offering at Samos, on account of the friendship that subsisted between himself and Polycrates the son of Æaces; but those at Lindus, not on account of any friendship, but because it is reported that the daughters of Danaus founded the temple of Minerva at Lindus, when they touched there in their flight from the sons of Egyptus : and these were the offerings that Amasis made. He was the first who conquered Cyprus, and subjected it to the payment of tribute.



AGAINST this Amasis, Cambyses, son of Cyrus, made war, leading with him both others, his own subjects, and of the Grecians, Ionians and Æolians. The cause of the war was this : Cambyses, having sent a herald into Egypt, demanded the daughter of Amasis ; and he made this demand at the suggestion of an Egyptian physician, who out of spite served Amasis in this manner, because, having selected him out of all the physicians in Egypt, and torn him from his wife and children, he had sent him as a present to the Persians, when Cyrus, having sent to Amasis, required of him the best oculist in Egypt. The Egyptian therefore, having this spite against him, urged on Cambyses by his suggestions, bidding him demand the daughter of Amasis, in order that if he should comply he might be grieved, or if he refused he might incur the hatred of Cambyses. But Amasis, dreading the power of the Persians, and being rme knew not whether to give or to deny ; for he was well aware that Cambyses purposed to take her, not as his wife, but his mistress. Having considered these things, he did as follows. There was a daughter of Apries, the former king, very tall and beautiful, the only survivor of the family ; her name was Nitetis. This damsel

, Amasis, having adorned with cloth of gold, sent to Persia as his own daughter. After a time, when Cambyses saluted her, addressing her by her father's name, the damsel said to him, “O king, you do not perceive that you have been imposed upon by Amasis, who, having dressed me in rich attire, sent me to you, presenting me as his own daughter ; whereas, in truth, I am the daughter of Apries, whom he, though he was his own master, put to death, after he had incited the Egyptians to revolt.” These words, and this accusation, induced Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, being greatly enraged, to invade Egypt. Such is the account the Persians give. 2. But the Egyptians claim Cambyses as their own, saying, that he was born from this daughter of Apries ; for that it was Cyrus, and not Cambyses, who sent to Amasis for his daughter ; but in saying this they err. Nor indeed could it escape their notice, (for if any people are well acquainted with the Persian customs, the Egyptians are so,) that first of all, it is not customary with them for a natural son to reign, when there is a legitimate son living; and secondly, that Cambyses was the son of Cassandane, daughter of Pharnaspes, one of the Achemenidæ, and not of the Egyptian woman. But they pervert the truth, claiming to be related to the family of Cyrus. And this is the real state of the case. 3. This other story is also told, which to me seems incredible. A certain Persian lady visited Cyrus's women, and when she saw the children of Cassandane, beautiful and tall, standing by her, praised them highly, being exceedingly struck with them; but Cassandane, wife of Cyrus, said, “Though I am the mother of such children, Cyrus holds me in disdain, and honours her whom he has obtained from Egypt.” This she said through envy of Nitetis ; but the eldest of her sons, Cambyses, said, “ Therefore, mother, when I am a man, I will turn all Egypt upside down.” He said this when he was about ten years of

age, and the women were much astonished ; but he, bearing it in mind when he grew up and was possessed of the kingdom, accordingly invaded Egypt.

4. The following other incident also occurred to promote this invasion. There was among the auxiliaries of Amasis a man by birth an Halicarnassian, whose name was Phanes, one able in counsel and valiant in war. This Phanes, owing some spite to Amasis, escaped in a ship from Egypt, with a design to confer with Cambyses. But as he was a man of no small consequence among the auxiliaries, and was very accurately acquainted with the affairs of Egypt, Amasis sent in pursuit of him, making every effort to také him ; and he sent the most trusty of his eunuchs in pursuit of him, with a trireme, who caught him in Lycia, but having taken him, did not bring him back to Egypt, for Phanes overreached him by artifice ; for having intoxicated his guards, he got away to the Persians; and coming over to Cambyses as he was preparing

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