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hand is but half the calamity ; but we servants should engage with other servants, and also against a horse, whose tricks do not you fear at all; for I promise you he shall never hereafter rear up against any man.” 112. Thus he spoke, and forthwith the forces joined battle by land and sea. Now the Ionians, fighting valiantly on that day, defeated the Phænicians at sea ; and of these the Samians most distinguished themselves ; but on land, when the armies met, they engaged in close combat ; and the following happened with respect to the two generals : when Artybius, seated on his horse, bore down upon Onesilus, Onesilus, as he had concerted with his shield-bearer, struck Artybius himself as he was bearing down upon him ; and as the horse was throwing his feet against the shield of Onesilus, the Carian thereupon struck him with a scythe, and cut off the horse's feet. So that Artybius the general of the Persians fell together with his horse on the spot. 113. While the rest were fighting, Stesenor, who was of Curium, deserted with no inconsiderable body of men ; these Curians are said to be a colony of Argives ; and when the Curians had deserted, the chariots of war belonging to the Salaminians did the same as the Curians : in consequence of this the Persians became superior to the Cyprians ; and the army being put to flight, many others fell, and amongst them Onesilus, son of Chersis, who had contrived the revolt of the Cyprians, and the king of the Solians, Aristocyprus, son of Philocyprus ; of that Philocyprus, whom Solon the Athenian, when he visited Cyprus, celebrated in his verses above all tyrants. 114. Now the Amathusians, having cut off the head of Onesilus, because he had besieged them, took it to Amathus, and suspended it over the gates ; and when the head was suspended, and had become hollow, a swarm of bees entered it, and filled it with honey-comb. When this happened, the Amathusians consulted the oracle respecting it, and an answer was given them, “that they should take down the head and bury it, and sacrifice annually to Onesilus, as to a hero ; and if they did so, it would turn out better for them.” 115. The Amathusians did accordingly, and continued to do so until my time. The Ionians, who had fought by sea at Cyprus, when they heard that the affairs of Onesilus were ruined, and that the rest of the Cyprian cities were besieged, except Salamis, but this the Salaminians had restored to their former king

Gorgus ; the Ionians, as soon as they learnt this, sailed away to Ionia. Of the cities in Cyprus, Soli held out against the siege for the longest time ; but the Persians, having undermined the wall all round, took it in the fifth month.

116. Thus the Cyprians, having been free for one year, were again reduced to servitude. But Daurises, who had married a daughter of Darius, and Hymees, and Otanes, and other Persian generals who also had married daughters of Darius, having pursued those of the Ionians who had attacked Sardis, and having driven them to their ships, when they had conquered them in battle, next divided the cities among themselves and proceeded to plunder them. 117. Daurises, directing his march towards the cities on the Hellespont, took Dardanus; he also took Abydos, Percote, Lampsacus, and Pæsus ; these he took each in one day. But as he was advancing from Pæsus against Parium, news was brought him that the Carians, having conspired with the Ionians, had revolted from the Persians. Therefore turning back from the Hellespont, he led his army against Caria. 118. Somehow news of this was brought to the Carians before Daurises arrived. The Carians, having heard of it, assembled at what are called the White Columns, on the river Marsyas, which flowing from the territory of Idrias, falls into the Mæander. When the Carians were assembled on this spot, several other propositions were made, of which the best appeared to be that of Pixodarus, son of Mausolus, a Cyndian, who had married the daughter of Syennesis king of the Cilicians. His opinion was that the Carians, having crossed the Mæander, and having the river in their rear, should so engage; in order that the Carians, not being able to retreat, and being compelled to remain on their ground, might be made even braver than they naturally were. This opinion, however, did not prevail, but that the Mæander should rather be in the rear of the Persians than of themselves ; to the end that if the Persians should be put to flight, and worsted in the engagement, they might have no retreat, and fall into the river. 119. Afterwards, the Persians having come up and crossed the Mæander, the Carians, thereupon, came to an engagement with the Persians on the banks of the river Marsyas, and they fought an obstinate battle, and for a long time, but at last were overpowered by numbers. Of the Persians there fell about two thousand, and of the Carians, ten thousand. Such of them as escaped from thence were shut up in Labranda, in a large precinct and sacred grove of plane-trees, dedicated to Jupiter Stratius. The Carians are the only people we know, who offer sacrifices to Jupiter Stratius. They, then, being shut up in this place, consulted on the means of safety, whether they would fare better by surrendering themselves to the Persians, or by abandoning Asia altogether. 120. While they were deliberating about this, the Milesians and their allies came to their assistance ; upon this the Carians gave up what they were before deliberating about, and prepared to renew the war ; and they engaged with the Persians when they came up, and having fought, were more signally beaten than before ; though in the whole many fell, the Milesians suffered most. 121. The Carians, however, afterwards recovered this wound, and renewed the contest. For hearing that the Persians designed to invade their cities, they placed an ambuscade on the way to Pedasus, into which the Persians falling by night, were cut in pieces, both they and their generals Daurises, Amorges, and Sisamaces ; and with them perished Myrses, son of Gyges. The leader of this ambuscade was Heraclides, son of Ibanolis, a Mylassian. Thus these Persians were destroyed.

122. Hymees, who was also one of those who pursued the Ionians that had attacked Sardis, bending his march towards the Propontis, took Cius of Mysia. But having taken it, when he heard that Daurises had quitted the Hellespont, and was marching against Caria, he abandoned the Propontis, and led his army on the Hellespont; and he subdued all the Æolians who inhabited the territory of Ilium, and subdued the Gergithæ, the remaining descendants of the ancient Teucrians ; but Hymees himself, having subdued these nations, died of disease in the Troad. 123. Thus then he died : but Artaphernes, governor of Sardis, and Otanes, one of the three generals, were appointed to invade Ionia, and the neighbouring territory of Æolia. Of Ionia, accordingly, they took Clazomenæ; and of the Æolians, Cyme.

124. When these cities were taken, Aristagoras the Milesian, for he was not, as it proved, a man of strong courage, who having thrown Ionia into confusion, and raised great disturbances, thought of flight, when he saw these results ; and, besides, it appeared to him impossible to overcome king Darius : therefore, having called his partisans together, he conferred with them, saying, “ that it would be better for them to have some sure place of refuge, in case they should be expelled from Miletus." He asked, therefore, whether he should lead them to Sardinia, to found a colony, or to Myrcinus of the Edonians, which Histiæus had begun to fortify, having received it as a gift from Darius. 125. However, the opinion of Hecatæus the historian, son of Hegesander, was, that they should set out for neither of these places, but that, having built a fortress in the island of Leros, they should remain quiet, if they were compelled to quit Miletus ; and that at some future time, proceeding from thence, they might return to Miletus. This was the advice of Hecatæus. 126. But Aristagoras himself was decidedly in favour of proceeding to Myrcinus ; he therefore intrusted Miletus to Pythagoras, a citizen of distinction, and he himself, taking with him all who were willing, sailed to Thrace, and took possession of the region to which he was bound. But setting out from thence, both Aristagoras himself and all his army perished by the hands of Thracians, as he was laying siege to a city, and the Thracians were willing to depart on terms of capitulation.

8 The two others were Daurises and Hymees; see ch.116.

9 The reader will observe that the sentence is broken and imperfect ; it is so in the original.



ARISTAGORAS, having induced the Ionians to revolt, thus died ; and Histiæus, tyrant of Miletus, having been dismissed by Darius, repaired to Sardis. When he arrived from Susa, Artaphernes, governor of Sardis, asked him for what reason he supposed the Ionians had revolted. Histiæus said, he did not know, and seemed surprised at what had happened, as if he in truth knew nothing of the present state of affairs. But Artaphernes, perceiving that he was dissembling, and being aware of the exact truth as to the revolt, said, “Histiæus, the state of the case is this ; you made the shoe and Aristagoras has put it on.” 2. Artaphernes spoke thus concerning the revolt: but Histiæus, fearing Artaphernes, as being privy to the truth, as soon as night came on, fled to the coast, having deceived king Darius ; for having promised to reduce the great island of Sardinia, he insinuated himself into the command of the Ionians in the war against Darius. Having crossed over to Chios he was put in chains by the Chians, being suspected by them of planning some new design against them in favour of Darius. However, the Chians, having learnt the whole truth, and that he was an enemy to the king, released him. 3. At that time Histiæus being questioned by the Ionians why he had so earnestly pressed Aristagoras to revolt from the king, and had wrought so much mischief to the Ionians, he by no means made known to them the true reason ; but told them, that “king Darius had resolved to remove the Phænicians and settle them in Ionia, and the Ionians in Phoenicia ; and for this reason he had pressed him.” Although the king had formed no resolution of the kind, he terrified the Ionians. 4. After this, Histiæus, corresponding by means of a messenger, Hermippus an Atarnian, sent letters to certain Persians in Sardis, as if they had before conferred with him on the

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