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on the outside; such water bags sometimes hold sixty gallons. The psalmist, when describing himself as wasted with affliction and trouble, compares himself to a bottle in the smoke, Ps. cxix. 83. A leathern bottle, if hung in the smoke for a length of time, would become shrivelled and dried up;

the tents of the Arabs are very smoky, having no openings but the doors.

There are no grates, or fireplaces, like those of England, in the east; the fires are kindled on flat stones, or hearths. If fire is wanted in the sitting rooms, it would probably be charcoal, kindled in a brazier, or metal vessel, used for the purpose. Such probably was the fire in which Jehoiakim burned the admonitory roll, Jer. xxxvi. 22, 23.

Horns were used for keeping liquors in, as the oil used for anointing by Samuel, 1 Sam. xvi. 13; by Zadok, 1 Kings i. 39. These were sometimes made of metal in the shape of a horn, and also used for drinking. Cups of gold, silver, and other materials, were commonly used, as Pharaoh's, Gen. xl. 11; Joseph's, xliv. 2, and those of Solomon, 2 Chron. ix. 20. Barzillai supplied cups, 2 Sam. xvii. 28. Jeremiah set pots and cups before the Rechabites, Jer. xxxv. 5. The word cup is often used figuratively, as for blessings, Ps. xvi. 5; xxiii. 5; but more commonly for afflictions or sufferings, Ps. lxxiii. 10; Isa. li. 17; Jer. xxv. 17; our Lord thus used the word, Luke xxii. 42; John xviii. 11.

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In the first ages, dress was very simple. God clothed Adam and Eve in the skins of beasts, Gen. iii. 21. Skins have continued to be the dress of savage nations, especially in cold climates, and Burkhardt describes the Bedouins as wearing leather aprons. After a time, other articles were used for dress, made of wool or flax: see Lev. xiii. 47; Prov. xxxi. 13. At length, garments of finer linen, and even of silk, were used by the rich, 2 Sam. i. 24; Prov. xxxi. 22; Luke xvi. 19. These were often dyed purple, or crimson, or scarlet, Judg. viii. 26; Dan. v. 29; Rev. xviii. 16. Jacob gave Joseph a coat of many colours, because he loved him more than his brethren, but it excited their envy, Gen. xxxvii. 3, 4. The daughters of kings and rich persons wore vests, or garments richly embroidered with needlework: see Psa. xlv. 13, 14; Judg. v. 30; also other texts. Such needlework still forms a principal part of the employment of females in the eastern nations. It was a regular business, Exod. xxxv. 35.

Dr. Shaw has given a very particular account of the eastern dress, which, with what other travellers relate, explains many passages of Scripture. He says, the usual size of the hyke, (the upper garment commonly worn,) is six yards long, and five or six feet wide. Arundell describes the white felt, or coarse cloth, as being the fair weather and foul weather companion of the camel driver, it protects him against heat or cold by day, and at night makes his bed and bedding. It serves for dress by day, and to sleep in at night, as it did to the Israelites, Deut. xxiv. 13. A covering is necessary in those countries, for, although the heat by day is very great, the nights generally are cold. Such a garment was loose and troublesome to the wearer; he was obliged to tuck it up, and fold it round him.

This made a girdle necessary whenever they were actively employed; and it explains the Scripture expression, having our loins girded," when called upon to be active in performing any duty,

Ruth's veil, which held six measures of barley, Ruth iii. 15, was a garment of this sort. The kneading-troughs of

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the Israelites were bound up in their hykes, Exod. xii. 34. The plaid worn by the highlanders is much the same sort of garment: the principal article of dress worn in Java, and other parts of the east, is similar; it is of many colours, like the Scottish plaid, and reminds of Joseph's coat.

A wooden or metal pin was used to fasten the folds of this garment together at the shoulder.

The upper, or the outer fold, Neh. v. 13, served for an apron to carry any thing in, as the lap full of wild gourds, 2 Kings iv. 39. See also Ruth iii. 15; Prov. xvi. 33; and other texts. Paxton says nothing comes amiss, it is put into the bosom, Luke vi. 38.

The burnoose is a sort of cloak worn over the hyke. It has a cape, or hood, to cover the head, as a shelter from rain. Under the hyke is worn a close-bodied frock, or tunic. These are the cloaks and coats mentioned Luke vi. 29, a precept meant to be observed in the spirit of it, not in the letter. The coat of the high priest, Exod. xxviii. 39, was a tunic, and so was Tamar's garment, 2 Sam. xiii. 18. The coat of our Saviour,“woven without seam,” was of this sort, John xix. 23, with an opening at the top for the head to pass through. Such garments are not uncommon in the east. When persons thus clad are engaged in any employment, they usually throw off the burnoose and hyke, and remain in their tunics. Thus, our Saviour laid aside his garment when he washed the disciples' feet; and when Saul, and David, and others, are spoken of as being naked, it means that they had put off their upper garments, and had upon them only their tunics. Garments like these would fit a number of persons, Gen. xxvii. 15; 1 Sam. xviii. 4; Luke

22; they would not need altering, like our clothes, before they could be worn by others. The hykes, or upper garments, were spread in the way when our Saviour entered Jerusalem in triumph, Matt. xxi. 8. Under the tunic, a shirt, usually of linen or cotton, is

Perkins describes a pasha of the Koords with shirt sleeves a yard and a half wide, these are rolled


and made tight just above the elbow, when needful. In times of sorrow, even from the days of Job, sackcloth was worn next the skin, Job. xvi. 15. By David, when mourning for Abner, 2 Sam. iii. 31; even by Ahab, 1 Kings xxi. 27; but the instances are too numerous to be all quoted here. The females also wore sackcloth, Isa. iii. 24; Joel i. 8.

Loose trousers are worn both by men and women in the east. The picture, page 18, represents an Arab of rank at the present day, in his usual dress.

The law of Moses directed the Israelites, Numb. xv. 37–42, to put a fringe, or tassel, to each of the corners of their upper garments, that when they saw them, they



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might remember all the commandments of the Lord to do them. The hem of Christ's garment, Matt. ix. 20, means these fringes. In later times, they wrote passages from the law upon strips of parchment, called phylacteries, and fastened them on the borders of their garments, or round their wrists or foreheads. These were, by many ignorant persons,

a sort of charm to preserve the warriors from danger; hypocrites wore them, that they might be thought more holy than their neighbours, Matt. xxiii. 5.

The girdles are usually of worsted, sometimes richly worked, Prov. xxxi. 24; they were folded several times round the body, and kept the clothes tight, Isa. v. 27; 1 Kings xviii. 46. One end is sewn up, so as to make a purse or small pocket. Small articles were often carried tucked into the girdle: see Ezek. ix. 2. A leathern girdle is frequently worn round the loins under the clothes. This is alluded to 1 Pet. i. 13.




The female dresses were often richly embroidered, as Judg. v. 30; Psa. xlv. 13; Prov. xxxi. 22. Purple and scarlet were colours worn by the rich and mighty. 2 Sam, i. 27; Judg. viii. 26; Dan. v. 29; Luke xvi. 19; Rev. xvii. 4 ; Jer. x. 9; Ezek. xxvii. 7. The extent to which the Jewish women went, as to their finery, appears from Isa. iii. 18—23. Dr. Henderson's translation presents an accurate list of female dress and ornaments—the

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