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restrictions a heavy yoke, by adding their own traditions, The sacrifices, when offered by individuals as sin-offerings, were light compared with the penalties which might have been enforced. And as a national ritual, though at times complicated, and to our ideas unpleasing, the sacrifices could not be regarded as expensive. The stated offerings at the temple during the year have been estimated as follows:-115 bullocks, 38 rams, 31 kids, 1103 lambs, 600 bushels of fine flour, 500 gallons of oil, and 400 gallons of wine. The whole yearly expense of this national ritual service, Lowman observes, would not cost 1001. for each of the twelve tribes. Still the personal attendance, the occasional sacrifices and lustrations, rendered it burdensome to individuals, when compared with the Christian dispensation : see Acts xv, 10.

The following TABULAR View of the CEREMONIAL LAW will be found useful.

It arranges the various precepts under their respective heads, so as both to show the details and to what those details may be referred. Most of these precepts have already been noticed ; others need only to be thus enumerated.



Leviticus. Numbers. Deuteron.

chap chap. chap.

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Of the holy place..
Of the tabernacle.
The laver of brass .
The altar of burnt-offering.
The altar of incense..
The candlestick of pure gold.
The table of shew-bread..
The priests and their vestments
The choosing of the Levites ..
The priest's office in general.
Their office in teaching
Their office in blessing ..
of the sacrifices according to their

several kinds; namely-
What the sacrifice ought to be.
Of the continual fire.
Of the burnt-offerings..
Of the peace-offerings.
For sin committed through ignorance

of the law...
For sin committed through ignorance

of the fact
For sin committed wittingly, yet not

through impiety
The special law of sacrifices for sin.
Of things belonging to the sacrifices
Of the shew-bread.
Of the lamps...
Of the sweet incense.

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Exodus. chap.

Leviticus. Numbers. Deuteron.

chap. chap. chap.

29, 30.

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28. 28.

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25. 25. 27.

30. 30.

27. 27.

Of the use of ordinary oblations :
Of the consecration of the high priests

and other priests...
Of the consecrations and office of the

Of the dwellings of the Levites...
Of the anointing the altar, and all the
instruments of the tabernacle

29, 30, Of the continual daily sacrifices Of the continual sabbath-days' sacrifice of the solemn sacrifice for feast

days; namely, Of trumpets Of new moons or beginning of months Of the three most solemn feasts in general.

33, 34. Of the feast of passover

12, 13. 23.

34. Of the feast of pentecost.

23, 34. Of the feast of tabernacles

23. 34. Of the feast of blowing the trumpets. Of the feast of expiation..

30. Of the firstfruits

22, 23. 34. Of tithes.. Of fruits growing and not eaten of Of the firstborn

13. 22. 34.
Of the sabbatical year..
Of the year of jubilee..
Of vows in general...
What persons ought not to make vows
What things cannot be vowed..
Of redemption of vows
Of the vows of the Nazarites..
Of the laws especially regarding the

priests ; namely-
Of pollutions.:
Of the high priest’s mourning
Of his marriage...
Of the mourning of the ordinary priests
Of their marriage...
Of their being forbid the use of wine, etc.
Of sanctified meats

Of the office of the Levites ; namely-

Other ceremonial laws ; namely-
Of uncleanness in general .

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of uncleanness in meats ; namelyOf blood..

Gen, ix. 23. Of fat.. Of dead carcasses..

22. Other meats and divers living creatures Of uncleanness in the issue of seed and

In the dead bodies of men.....
In the leprosy
Of circumcision

Gen. xvii.
Of the water of expiation.
Of the mourning of the Israelites......
Of mixtures.
Of their garments and writing the law

Of young birds not to be taken with the

dam. Of their paddle staves. .

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14. 14.

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THE second part of the subject under consideration may be called, by way of distinction, THE SPIRITUAL WORSHIP OF THE JEWS. There is quite enough, both in Deuteronomy and Joshua, to satisfy that Moses and his successor taught the Israelites, that they were to draw near to God in acts of mental worship. And the same principles are taught in every part of Scripture. The necessity for prayer at once appears, when we consider the dependent condition of all creatures, who can only be supported and supplied by that bounty and liberality which at first created all things. The house of the Lord (see Isa. lvi. 7) is especially to be denominated the house of prayer. Nor should the remark of Henry be forgotten, that, as in the institutions, so in the devotions of the Old Testament, there is more of Christ than perhaps the Old Testament saints were aware of.

There is no reason to doubt that Adam and Eve were made partakers of the grace set forth in the promises of redemption, and that they instructed their children in the same truths. This appears from Abel's conduct, and the early distinction, Gen. iv. 26, between those who received these doctrines, and professed themselves followers of God, and others who must have rejected the truth; or a difference would not have been noticed. When God is looked up to as a Creator and Benefactor, and much more where he is believed in as a Saviour and Redeemer, the heart will be lifted


prayer and praise. As in the case of Enoch and of Noah, the renewed heart will walk with God, and how can this intercourse be maintained unless by prayer ? They came to God, believing that he is a rewarder of those that diligently seek him, Heb. xi. 6.

The early history of the patriarchs after the flood shows that they attended to prayer, both for themselves and for others. Abraham prayed for Sodom. Lot prayed for himself and his family, Gen. xviii. xix. Abimelech was told that Abraham would pray for him, Gen. xx. 7, and he did so plead. Eliezer, Abraham's steward, probably prayed at the well, Gen. xxiv. 12. Rebekah's mother and brother prayed for her, ver. 60. Isaac's prayer in the field appears to have been his regular evening practice, ver. 63, and he prayed for his sons, Gen. xxvii. 28, 29, 39, 40. Jacob wrestled all night with God in prayer, Gen. xxxii. 24, 26, but it is unnecessary to multiply instances. These all confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth, they called God their God, and desired a heavenly inherit

How can faith exist without prayer ? And praise necessarily accompanies prayer; it is part of it.

The names by which the patriarchs called various places, frequently were acts of prayer or praise. Thus, when prevented from offering up Isaac, Abraham called the place Jehovah-Jireh, which means “the Lord will provide,” Gen. xxii. 14. When the herdmen of Gerar ceased to strive with the herdmen of Isaac, he called the name of the well Rehoboth, or "room," adding an acknowledgment of God's goodness, Gen. xxvi. 22. Jacob called the place where he prayed, Peniel, Gen. xxxii. 30,“ the face of God,” expressing thankfulness that he had been permitted to see God, and yet was preserved. The blessings the patriarchs uttered respecting


their descendants were both prayers and praises ; see particularly the words of dying Jacob, Gen. xlix. Leah not only praised the Lord for his providential mercy to her, but expressly named one of her children Judah ; that is, “ praise,” Gen. xxix, 35. The book of Job, also, is fulí of passages which indicate a mental and spiritual communion with his God. It may further be observed, that most of the places where the patriarchs erected altars for sacrifice had previously been marked by their spiritual intercourse with God. Thus, at Bethel, or the house of God, where Jacob set up a pillar, or pile of stones, to keep in remembrance his remarkable vision, was afterwards built an altar by Divine command, Gen. xxxv. 7.

Prayer and praise, or spiritual worship, were continually offered under the second dispensation, without sacrifices, as well as when accompanied by offerings. The solemn injunction, “ Hear, O Israel ! The Lord our God is one Lord ; and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might;" see Deut. vi. 4, 5, plainly shows a spiritual religion of the heart, not mere outward ceremonies like heathen sacrifices. In Numb. vi. 23—26 ; X. 35, 36 ; Deut. xxvi. 3, 5—11, 13–15, are short devotional formularies of prayer for stated occasions. In the ceremonies appointed for the expiation of a murder when the perpetrator was unknown, a prayer was appointed, which is recorded Deut. xxi. 7, 8. In accordance with this principle, the prophet Samuel expressly declares that “ to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams," 1 Sam. xv. 22. The occasion upon which these words were uttered particularly claims notice. King Saul and the people had disobeyed the Divine directions, and thought to compensate for so doing by offering sacrifices. The prophet Hosea, xiv. 1, calls upon Israel to, return to the Lord, and when accepted, to offer “ the calves of the lips ;” not the sacrifices of slain beasts, but the thanksgivings of the heart.

The expressions in the fiftieth Psalm imply that God would not accept the typical sacrifice, where thanksgiving unto God, and the calling upon him in the day of trouble, had been neglected ; see ver. 14, 15. In ver. 23, it is expressly said, that offering praise is glorifying God; see also Prov, xxi. 3, the strong declaration, Isa. i. 11–17, and Jer. vii. 21–23; Hos. vi. 6; Amos v. 21, 22 ; Mic. vi. 6 -8, and many more. To these may be added the declara

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