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be read with a spark of the same feeling in which they are composed, and in a luxurious age, and among a luxurious people, demand even too much effort in the reader, or hearer, to be generally popular. To such, a simple narrative, a history of ludicrous or strange adventures, forms the favourite amusement; and we thus find that listening. to the recital of tales has at all times been the peculiar entertainment of the indolent and voluptuous nations of the East. A taste, accordingly, for this species of narrative, or composition, seems to have been most early and most generally prevalent in Persia and other Asiatic regions, where the nature of the climate and effeminacy of the inhabitants conspired to promote its cultivation.
The people of Asia Minor, who possessed the fairest portion of the globe, were addicted to every species of luxury and magnificence; and having fallen under the dominion of the Persians, imbibed with the utmost avidity the amusing fables of their conquerors. The Milesians, who were a colony of Greeks, and spoke the Ionic dialect, excelled all the neighbouring nations in ingenuity, and first caught from the Persians this rage for fiction : but the tales they invented, and of which the name has become so celebrated, have all perished. There is little known of them, except that they were not of a very moral tendency, and were principally written by a person of the name of Aristides, whose tales were translated into Latin by Sisenna, the Roman historian, about the time of the civil wars of Marius and Sylla. Huet, Vossius,' and the other writers by whom the stories of Aristides have been mentioned, concur in representing them as short amatory narratives in prose; yet it would appear from two lines in Ovid's “ Tristia," that some of them, at least, had been written in verse :
Junxit Aristides Milesia carmina secum
Pulsus Aristides nec tamen urbe sua est. 2
1 De Historicis Græcis.—Aristides.
? There is, however, another reading, “ crimina," which Manso follows in his German translation, remarking that Aristides' work was certainly composed in prose.
Sisenna translated it into prose, nec obfuit illiHistoriæ turpes inseruisse jocos.”—Trist. ii. 443, and 412, and Lucian and Apuleius, both prose writers, speak of the Greek as their model in
But though the Milesian tales have perished, of their nature some idea may be formed from the stories of Parthenius of Nicæa, many of which, there is reason to believe, are extracted from these ancient fables, or at least are written in the same spirit. The tales of Parthenius are about forty in number, but appear to be mere sketches. They chiefly consist of accounts of every species of seduction, and the criminal passions of the nearest relations. The principal characters generally come to a deplorable end, though seldom proportioned to what they merited by their vices. Parthenius seems to have grafted the Milesian tales on the mythological fables of Apollodorus and similar writers, and also to have borrowed from early historians and poets, whose productions have not descended to us. His work is inscribed to the Latin poet Cornelius Gallus, the contemporary and friend of Virgil. Indeed the author says that it was composed for his use, to furnish him with materials for elegies and other poems.
narration and expression (Lucian, Amores, § 1, and Apuleius, in the introduction to his Metamorphoses.]—Liebrecht. The tales of Sybaris were equally famous and infamous with those of Miletus (Ovid, Trist. ii. 4, 17). Ælian and Aristophanes have preserved an outline of two of the tales of Sybaris, which, however, are naive and irreproachable enough. (See Landau Quellen, 1884, p. 300 ; see chap. ii. of the present work).
1 The work of Parthenius, Trepi špwriūv matíuatwv, is a collection of thirty-six abstracts of love legends collected in brief form from historians and poets, and dedicated to the compiler's friend, the Roman poet Cornelius Gallus. The object of the compilation is partly to elucidate allusions occurring in poetical works, partly to supply themes for elegiac or epic narratives of love adventures, as appears from the
dedication of Parthenius. They thus afford, remarks Rohde (Griech, Rom. p. 114), the most explicit testimony to the close connection between the Roman artificial poetry of the early Empire with the Alexandrian school of imaginative literature, and supply an invaluable source of information upon the popular erotic tales, known to us otherwise only by meagre fragments, and upon their recital in both prose and poetical writers. A further element of value is added by the care of the compiler in generally indicating the sources whence he has drawn, such as the Milesian, Naxian, Pallenian, Lydian, Trojan, and Bythinian tales. (See Rohde, Gr. Rom. p. 114, and Mueller, Hist. Lit. Gr. iii. p. 354.)
· Eclog. 10.
3 Conon, the grammarian, a contemporary of Parthenius, was the author of fifty Ainynoels, of which abstracts have been preserved by Photius, Patriarch of Alexandria. They are for the most part of mythicalhistorical character. No. 38 is essentially the story of the judgment of
The inhabitants of Asia Minor, and especially the Milesians, had considerable intercourse with the Greeks of Attica and Peloponnesus, whose genius also naturally disposed them to fiction: they were delighted with the tales of the eastern nations, and pleasure produced imitation.'
Previous, however, to the age of Alexander the Great, little seems to have been attempted in this style of composition by the European Greeks; but the more frequent intercourse which his conquests introduced between the Greek and Asiatic nations, opened at once all the sources of fiction." Clearchus, who was a disciple of Aristotle, and who wrote a history of fictitious love adventures, seems to have been the first author who gained any celebrity by this species of composition. Of the romances, however, which were written previous to the appearance of the Theagenes and Chariclea of Heliodorus, I am compelled to give a very meagre account, as the works themselves have perished, and our knowledge of them is chiefly derived from the summary
which is contained in the Bibliotheca of Photius. Some years after the composition of the fictitious history of Clearchus, Antonius Diogenes wrote a more perfect romance than had hitherto appeared, founded on the wandering adventures and loves of Dinias and Dercyllis, entitled,
Sancho Panza on the staff (Don Quixote, pt. ii. ch. 45). This is found in the life of St. Nicholas of Bari, in the Legenda Aurea of Jacobus de Voragine, whence Cervantes may have derived it. The same legend is current among the Mohammedans (Weil, Biblische Legenden der Muhammedaner, p. 213), and occurs in the Talmud (Blätter für Israels Gegenwart and Zukunft Erster Jahrg. Berlin, 1845, p. 27). There is a similar local legend in the Brandenburg March (Magazin für die Literatur des Auslandes, 1843, No. 77).--LIEB.
1 Indian literature indeed bears traces of Greek influence subsequent to the expedition of Alexander, and there is sparing indication of the inverse. See, however, note on Heliodorus (pp. 22, 23 infra). Dunlop cites but two works, those of Clearchus and Antonius Diogenes, in support of his assertion. Opinions differ widely upon the Erotica of Clearchus. By some it is considered to have been a philosophic treatise upon love, by others a romance, by others a collection of short erotic tales. Antonius Diogenes flourished probably considerably after the commencement of the Christian era, and not earlier than the end of the second century, according to Passow (in Ersch and Gruber's “Encyclop.”). His work, moreover, exhibits no special indication of Eastern influence. For somewhat fuller notice of this question, see Liebrecht's notes,
OF THE INCREDIBLE THINGS IN THULE.
That island, of which the position is one of the most doubtful points in ancient geography, was not, according to Diogenes, the most distant of the globe, as he talks of several beyond it: Thule is but a single station for his adventurers, and many of the most incredible things are beheld in other quarters of the world. The idea of the work of Diogenes. is said to have been taken from the Odyssey, and in fact many of the incidents seem to have been borrowed from that poem. Indeed the author mentions a number of writers prior to himself, particularly Antiphanes, from whom he had collected these wonderful relations. Aulus Gellius tells us, that coming on one occasion from Greece to Italy, he landed at Brundusium, in Calabria, where he purchased a collection of fabulous histories, under the names of Aristeus, Ctesias, and Onesicritus, which were full of stories concerning nations which saw during night, but were blind during day, and various other fictions, which, we shall find, were inserted in the Incredible Things in Thule.” The work of Diogenes is praised by Photius for its purity of style, and the delightful variety of its adventures; yet, to judge from that author's abridgment, it seems to have contained a series of the most improbable incidents. But though filled with the most trifling and incredible narrations, it is deserving of attention, as it seems to have been a repository from which Achilles Tatius and succeeding fablers derived the materials. of less defective romances.
Dinias flying from Arcadia, his native country, arrives at the mouth of the river Tanais. Urged by the intensity of the cold, he proceeds towards the east, and, having made a circuit round the globe, he at length reaches Thule [c. 2]. Here he forms an acquaintance with Dercyllis, the heroine of the romance, who had been driven from Tyre along with
1 'Αντώνιου Διογένους των υπέρ θούλην άπιστων λογοί. For a discussion of the theories respecting the locality of Thule, see Elton's “ Origins of English History," p. 68.
2 Gellius, however, only says that they saw better at night, a circumstance which has reference to the nocturnal solar phenomena in very northern latitudes.
her brother Mantinia, by the intrigues of Paapis, an Egyptian priest. She relates to Dinias how she had wandered through Rhodes and Crete, and also among the Cimmerians, where she had a view of the infernal regions (c. 3], through favour of her deceased servant Myrto;-how, being separated from her brother, she arrived with a person of the name of Ceryllus at the tomb of the Syrens, and afterwards at a city in Spain, where the people saw during the night, a privilege which was neutralized by total blindness during day.-Dercyllis further relates how she travelled among the Celts, and a nation of Amazons [c. 4]; and that in Sicily she again met with her brother Mantinia, who related to her adventures still more extraordinary than her own; having seen all the sights in the sun, moon, and most remote islands of the globe (c. 5]. Dercyllis, after many other vicissitudes, arrives in Thule [c. 6), whither she is followed by her old enemy Paapis, who, by his magic art, makes her die every night and come alive again in the morning ;-an easy kind of punishment, being equivalent to a refreshing nap. The secret of these incantations, which chiefly consisted in spitting in the victim's face, is detected by Azulis, who had accompanied Dinias into Thule, and the spells of the powerful magician being through his means broken, Dercyllis and Mantinia return to their native country (c. 7, 8]. After the departure of his friends, Dinias wanders beyond Thule, and advances towards the Pole. In these regions he says the darkness continued sometimes a month, sometimes six months, but at certain places for a whole year; and the length of the day was proportioned to that of the night. At last, awakening one morning, he finds himself at Tyre, where he meets with his old friends Mantinia and Dercyllis, with whom he passes the remainder of his life [c. 9].
Besides the principal subject of the romance, of which an abstract has been given by Photius, Porphyrius, in his Life of Pythagoras, has preserved a long and fabulous account of that mysterious philosopher, which, he tells us, formed an episode of the Incredible Things in Thule, and was related to Dercyllis by Aristæus, one of the companions of her flight from Tyre, and an eminent disciple of Pythagoras. Mnesarchus one day found, under a large poplar,