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The Clitophon and Leucippe of Tatius does not seem to
have been composed like Theagenes and Chariclea, as a
romance equally interesting and well written throughout,
but as a species of patchwork, in different places of which
the author might exhibit the variety of his talents. At
one time he is anxious to show his taste in painting and
sculpture; at another his acquaintance with natural his-
tory; and towards the end of the book his skill in decla-
mation. But his principal excellence lies in descriptions;
and though these are too luxuriant, they are in general
beautiful, the objects being at once well selected, and so
painted as to form in the mind of the reader a distinct and
lively image. As examples of his merit in this way may
be instanced, his description of a garden (i. 16], and of
a tempest followed by a shipwreck [iii. 234]. We may
also mention his accounts of the pictures of Europa [i. 1),
of Andromeda (iii. 7], and Prometheus [iii. 8], in which
his descriptions and criticisms are executed with very con-
siderable taste and feeling. Indeed, the remarks on these
paintings form a presumption of the advanced state of the
art at the period in which Tatius wrote, or at least of the
estimation in which it was held, and afford matter of much
curious speculation to connoisseurs and artists.

Writers, however, are apt to indulge themselves in en-
larging where they excel; accordingly the descriptions of
Tatius are too numerous, and sometimes very absurdly
introduced. Thus Clitophon, when mentioning the pre-
parations for his marriage with a woman he disliked, pre-
sents the reader with a long description of a necklace
which was purchased for her, and also enters into a detail
concerning the origin of dyeing purple [ii. 11]; he likewise
introduces very awkwardly an account of various zoological
curiosities [ii. 14]. Indeed, he seems particularly fond of
natural history, and gives very animated and correct de-
lineations of the hippopotamus [iv. 2, &c.], of the elephant
[iv. 4], and the crocodile (iv. 19].

The description of the rise and progress of the passion
not, then, in the Greek romances that moral lessons are to be sought,
they may rather supply information respecting the private life of the
ancients, though their trustworthiness in this regard is by no means
unchallenged. (See note, p. 62, 3.)

of Clitophon for Leucippe is extremely well-executed. Of
this there is nothing in the romance of Heliodorus. Thea-
genes and Chariclea at first sight are violently and mutually
enamoured ; in Tatius we have more of the restless agita-
tion of love and the arts of courtship. Indeed, this is
by much the best part of the Clitophon and Leucippe, as
the author discloses very considerable acquaintance with
the human heart. This knowledge also appears in the
sentiments scattered through the work, though it must be
confessed that in many of his remarks he is apt to subtilize
and refine too much.

In point of style, Tatius is said by Huet and other
critics to excel Heliodorus, and all the writers of Greek
romance. His language has been chiefly applauded for its
conciseness, ease, and simplicity. Photius, who wrote
tolerable Greek himself, and must have been a better
judge than any later critic, observes, “ with regard to dic-
tion and composition, Tatius seems to me to excel. When
he employs figurative language, it is clear and natural:
his sentences are precise and limpid, and such as by their
sweetness greatly delight the ear.

In the delineation of character Tatius is still more defec-
tive than Heliodorus.-Clitophon, the principal person in
the romance, is a wretchedly weak and pusillanimous
being; he twice allows himself to be beaten by Thersander,
without resistance—he has neither sense nor courage, nor
indeed

any virtue except uncommon fidelity to his mistress.
She is a much more interesting, and is indeed a heroic
character. 3

We now proceed to the analysis of a romance different
in its nature from the works already mentioned ; and of a
species which may be distinguished by the appellation of
Pastoral romance.

It may be conjectured with much probability, that pas-
toral composition sometimes expressed the devotion, and
sometimes formed the entertainment, of the first generations
of mankind. The sacred writings sufficiently inform us that

1 Huet. p. 40, Boder. præf. p. 15.
2 Photius, Bib. Cod. lxxxvii. p. 206.

3 Durier (1605-1658) wrote a tale in imitation of Achilles Tatius,
entitled : “ Les Amours de Leucippe et de Clitophon en deux journées.”

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it existed among the eastern nations during the earliest ages. Rural images are everywhere scattered through the Old Testament; and the Song of Solomon in particular beautifully delineates the charms of a country life, while it paints the most amiable affections of the mind, and the sweetest scenery of nature. A number of passages of Theocritus bear a striking resemblance to descriptions in the inspired pastoral; and many critics have believed that he had studied its beauties, and transferred them to his eclogues. Theocritus was imitated in his own dialect by Moschus and Bion; and Virgil, taking advantage of a different language, copied yet rivalled the Sicilian. The Bucolics of the Roman bard seem to have been considered as precluding all attempts of the same kind ; for, if we except the feeble efforts of Calpurnius, and his contemporary Nemesianus, who lived in the third century, no subsequent specimen of pastoral poetry was, as far as I know, produced till the revival of literature.

It was during this interval that Longus, a Greek sophist, who is said to have lived soon after the age of Tatius, wrote his pastoral romance of

DAPHNIS AND CHLOE, which is the earliest, and by far the finest example that has appeared of this species of composition. Availing

1 Rohde (Gr. Rom. p. 503) thinks that Tatius lived later than the author of Daphnis and Chloe, and indeed imitated him in some respects (0.9., the sumptuous description of a garden, of a town, and the episode of Pan and the flute. It is extremely doubtful whether Longus was ever the name of any Greek author. Schöll (Hist. de la Litt. Gr. vi. p. 238) supposes the alleged name of the author to be simply a false reading of the last word of the title as found in the Florentine MS. : Apoßlakõv łownikūv lóyou d', and this suggestion is adopted by Jacobs in his German version, 1832, and by Seiler in his edition of Longi Pastoralia, Lipsiæ, 1835. The last-named editor says (Præf. p. iii.) that the best MS. begins and ends with λόγου ποιμενικών, instead of Λόγγου, and that Stephens cites two copies, in one of which the heading began Nóyou, and in the other Aòyyou. If the author was really Longus, he was probably a freedman of one of the many Roman families who bore this cognomen. Be this as it may, we know nothing of the author's life or date, which Rohde (Gr. Rom. p. 502) gives reasons for placing at the close of the second century. Photius says nothing of him in his Myriabiblia, nor is he mentioned by any of the authors with whom he is supposed to have

himself of the beauties of the pastoral poets who preceded him, he has added to their simplicity of style, and charming pictures of Nature, a story which possesses considerable interest, and of which the following abstract is pre„sented to the reader.

In the neighbourhood of Mytilene, the principal city of Lesbos, Lamon, a goatherd, as he was one day tending his flock, discovered an infant sucking one of his goats with surprising dexterity. He takes home the child, and presents him to his wife Myrtale; at the same time he delivers to her a purple mantle with which the boy was adorned, and a little sword with an ivory hilt, which was lying by his side. Lamon having no children of his own, resolves to bring up the foundling, and bestows on him the pastoral name of Daphnis [Bk. I. c. 3]."

About two years after this occurrence, Dryas, a neighbouring shepherd, finds in the cave of the nymphs, which is beautifully described in the romance, a female infant, nursed by one of his ewes. The child is brought to the cottage of Dryas, receives the name of Chloe, and is cherished by the old man as if she had been his daughter [i. 6].

When Daphnis had reached the age of fifteen, and Chloe that of thirteen, Lamon and Dryas, their reputed fathers, had corresponding dreams on the same night. The nymphs of the cave in which Chloe had been discovered appear to each of the old shepherds, delivering Daphnis and Chloe to a winged boy, with a bow and arrows, who commands that Daphnis should be sent to keep goats, and the girl to tend

been contemporary. His book itself shows that he was a clever and well-read sophist of the school of Lucian and the Philostrati; and the style and tone of the novel, no less than its proper title Asosiará, or Lesbian Adventures, place it in the same class with the Æthiopica of Heliodorus. Mueller, Hist. Lit. Gr. p. iii. p. 357. See further an ex. cellent article, which is from the pen of Professor Malden, in Knight's Quarterly Magazine, vol. i. pp. 277-295, on this romance. For the bibliography of the Lesbiaca, see Schöll, Hist. Gr. Lit. iii. p. 161, but and especiaily the Notice bibliographique par A. J. Pons appended to the French translation published by Quantin, of Paris, in 1878.

In the indication of the chapters it has been thought best to follow M. Zévort's French translation (Romans Grecs, précédé d'une introduction sur le Roman chez les Grecs. Paris, 1856).

the sheep: Daphnis and Chloe have not long entered on their new employments, which they exercise with a care of their flocks, increased by a knowledge of the circumstances of their infancy, when chance brings them to pasture on the same spot [i. 8]. It was then, says the romance, the beginning of spring, and every species of flower bloomed through the woods, the meadows and mountains.—The tender flocks sported around—the lambs skipped on the hills—the bees hummed through the valleys—and the birds filled the groves with their song. Daphnis collects the wandering sheep of Chloe, and Chloe drives from the rocks the goats of Daphnis. They make reeds in common, and share together their milk and their wine ;—their youth, their beauty, the season of the year, every thing tends to inspire them with a mutual passion: which is further strengthened in Chloe's breast by the sight of Daphnis bathing in the stream. Chloe had, however, another admirer, Dorco, a cow-herd, who had rescued Daphnis from a pit into which he had tumbled. Between him and Daphnis a discussion arose as to which of them was the handsomer. When both of them had spoken, Chloe, who was umpire, decided in favour of Daphnis, and bestowed upon him the award for victory, a kiss [i. 16]."

Chloe's other admirer, Dorco, the cow-herd, having in vain requested her in marriage from Dryas, her reputed father, resolves to carry her off by force; for this purpose he disguises himself as a wolf, and lurks among some bushes near a place where Chloe used to pasture her sheep. In this garb he is discovered and attacked by the dogs, who entered into his frolic with unexpected alacrity, but is preserved from being torn to pieces by the timely arrival of Daphnis. From the example of Dorco this became a favourite stratagem among pastoral characters. In the Pastor Fido (act iv. sc. ii.), Dorinda disguises herself as a

1 Tbese two episodes (Bk. i. 13-17) form the fragment which was omitted in all editions published before 1810. It was found by P. L. Courier in 1807 in a Manuscript in the Laurentian Library in Florence, and has been reintegrated with the work in subsequent issues. In the English translation of J. Craggs (1719, 172), Mr. H. Jenner tells me, “ a passage was ingeniously invented to supply the deficiency, which is however far more precipitate in its action than the real words of Longus."

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