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Bear came out and received us, declaring | priests: therefore we would willingly himself quite willing to give us shelter, hear what kind of instruction he would and he led us into the inn parlour. give us, and how he would prove his
There we found a man sitting alone at proposition.” the table, and before him a book was After this he asked, “ Where have you lying. He greeted us kindly, bade us hitherto studied ?” (Answer) “ At Basel.” come nearer, and seat ourselves near at Then said he, “How goes it at Basel ? the table. But our shoes were, if we Is Erasmus of Rotterdam still himself, may say 'so, so muddy and filthy, that and what is he doing?" from shame we did not like to enter the “Sir," we answered, we know nothroom ; and we seated ourselves by the ing more but that he is well: Erasmus is door on a little bench. Then he invited there, but what he is doing is hidden and us to drink, which we could not refuse. not known to any man, for he keeps himIndeed, as we recognized his friendliness self very quiet and secret.” and kindliness, we sat ourselves near Talk of this kind seemed to us very him, as he had asked us to do, at his strange as coining from a trooper, that table. Then we called for a measure of he should speak about the two Schurfs, wine, with which we in our turn asked of Philip Melancthon, and Erasmus. Alhim to honour us by drinking it with us. so about the necessity of learning the We had no other idea but that he was a Greek and Hebrew tongues. He had trooper, who, according to the custom of also occasionally uttered some Latin the country, sat there with a red leather words, so that we could not but think cap, in hose and doublet, without armour, that he must be, a different person from a his sword by his side, his right hand upon common trooper. the pommes of his sword, and the other “My friends," he said to us, “what do holding the handle. His eyes were black they hold in Switzerland about Luther ?” and deep set, shining and sparkling like “Good sir, there are there, as everystars, so that you could not well look at where, various opinions about him. them.
Many cannot sufficiently exalt him, and Soon he began to ask us where we thank God for God's truth made manifest were born. Then he gave himself the through him, and that he has caused answer. “You are Swiss. From what errors to be known. But many curse him part of Switzerland do you come?” We as a profligate heretic, and especially the answered, “From St. Gall.” Then he clergy do so.” said, “If you go from here, as I under- Then, he said, “I can well believe it ; stand you are going, to Wittenberg, you those are the parsons.” will find there good fellow-countrymen of In the course of such conversation he yours, namely, Dr. Hieronimus Schurf, had become quite familiar with us, so and his brother, Dr. Augustine.”
that my companion ventured to take up We said, “We have letters to them," the book which was before him and open and then we asked him, “ Good sir, can it. It was a Hebrew psalter. Then he you inform us whether Martin Luther is laid it quickly down, and the trooper now at Wittenberg, or at what other drew it to himself. My companion then place ?"
said. “I would give a finger from this He answered, “ I have certain knowl- hand to understand that language.” The edge that Luther is not now at Witten- trooper answered, “ You would soon learn berg; he will, however, soon come there. it if you would be diligent; I too desire Buť Philip Melancthon is there ; he to have more knowledge of it, and I exteaches the Greek language, and there are ercise myself daily therein.” others also who teach Hebrew. In truth, Meanwhile the day declined, and it beI would advise you to study both lan- came very dark, when the landlord came guages, for they are necessary to under- to the table. As he had heard our desire stand the Holy Scriptures."
and longing to see Martin Luther, he Then he answered, “ God be praised ! said, “ Dear comrades, had you been here If God should spare our lives, we will two days before, your desire would ha not desist till we see and hear the man ; been gratified, for he has sat at that table for on his account it is that we have un- and — here he pointed with his finger dertaken this journey. For we heard in that place." This vexed us greatly, that he would overthrow the priesthood and we were angry with ourselves that and the mass as an unwarranted service we had tarried ; but we were chiefly to God. Now we from our youth have angry with the miry and wretched road been brought up by our elders to become which had hindered us.
Then we said,
“ Still we are glad that we are in the sonably.” When the trooper heard this, house and sit at the table where he sat.” he said, “ Come here, I will see to the Thereupon the landlord could not help settlement with the landlord.” laughing, and he went out to the door. During the meal he spoke many pious
After a little while the landlord called friendly words, so that the merchants and me; I must come to him outside the we were astonished at him and paid more door. I was frightened, and thought to attention to his words than to all the myself what I had done that was im- good things of the supper. And, amidst proper, or what innocent cause I had these sayings, he bemoaned with a sigh given for anger.
how the Lords and Princes were assernThen the landlord said to me, “Be- bled at the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg cause I know that you have a strong de- on account of God's word to consider sire to hear and see Luther – he it is these imminent affairs and the burdens who sits beside you."
of the German nation ; but were to nothThese words I took as a joke, and said, ing more inclined than to waste the good “You have pleasure in turning me into time in costly tournaments, sledgings, ridicule, and would satisfy my desire by a courtly pomp and wickedness of all counterfeit Luther.”
kinds, which would be much better deHis answer was, “ He it is indeed ; but voted to the fear of God and Christian take care and do nothing to show that prayer to God. “ But these are you recognize him.”
Christian Princes !” Furthermore be I agreed to this, but I could not be said that he was in hopes that the Evanlieve that it was Luther. I went back gelical truth would bring forth more fruit into the room, and sat myself down again in our children and descendants who at the table, and longed to tell my com- were not poisoned by papistical error, panion what the landlord had disclosed but were already planted upon pure truth to me. At last, I turned to him, and and God's word, than it could do with the whispered secretly, “The landlord has older ones in whom errors were so inroottold me that he is the Luther.” But my ed that with difficulty they could be upcompanion also, like myself, would not rooted. Thereupon, the merchants also believe it, and said, " He perhaps said it gave their opinions, and the elder one is Hutten, and you have misunderstood said, “I am a simple. plain layman, I unhim." And I, since the guise and ges- derstand nothing especially, about this tures of a trooper reminded me more of business ; but I must say, now I look at Hutten than of Luther, a monk, let myself the thing, Luther must be an angel from be persuaded that the landlord had said, heaven, or a devil from hell. I would “ It is Hutten,” for the first syllable of with pleasure give him ten gulden if I both names sounds very much alike. might confess him, for I believe he could What therefore I afterwards said, I said and would enlighten my conscience." as if I were addressing Huldrich Von Just then the landlord came to us and Hutten, the knight.
whispered, “ Martin has paid for the supMeanwhile, there came in two travel- per for you.” That gladdened us much, ling merchants, who also wished to stay not on account of the money and the enfor the night at the inn; and, after they joyment, but because this man had made had uncloaked themselves, and taken off us guest free. After the supper the mertheir spurs, one of them laid upon the chants rose up and went into the stables table by him an unbound book. There- to look after their horses. Meanwhile upon the trooper asked what kind of Martin remained with us alone in the book that was. The merchant answered, chamber, and we thanked him for the " It is Dr. Luther's exposition of some of honour he had done us, and the cost he the Gospels and Epistles, just lately had been at for us, and we said that we printed and published : have you not had taken him for Huldrich Von Hutten; seen it ?” The trooper said, * It will but he replied, “ I am not." soon come to me."
Thereupon comes in the landlord, and Then the landlord said, “Now seat Martin said, “I have become to-night a yourselves at the table; we must have nobleman, for these Swiss take me for our supper.” But we begged the land- Huldrich Von Hutten !” The host said, lord that he would have forbearance with “ You are not that, but Martin Luther." us, and give us something separate. Then he laughed so merrily. “They," Then the landlord said, “ My dear com- he said, “take me for Hutten — you for panions, seat yourselves at the table with Luther, soon I shall be Markolfus.” the gentlemen. I will deal with you rea- [Markolfus was a comical figure that
delighted the common people, a sort of called into the room, behold, we find the German Punch.)
trooper Martin just as he was at Jena. After talk of this kind, he lifted up a With him were Philip Melancthon, Justus beer glass and said, according to the Judochus, Jonas Nicholas, Armsdorf, and custom of the country, “Swiss, drink to Dr. Augustine Schurf. They were tellme a friendly drink for a blessing." And ing him what had happened at Wittenas I was about to take the glass from him berg during his absence. He greets us, he changed it and asked for a glass with and laughs, points with his finger, and wine, saying, “ Beer is not a home-drink says, “ This is the Philip Melancthon of of yours; you are unaccustomed to it, whom I spoke to you." drink the wine." Then he stood up, threw his trooper's cloak on his shoulder, remark of Gustave Freytag upon it is, “ In
Thus ends this interesting narrative. The and took leave. As he did so he offered the true-hearted representation of Kessler us his hand and said, “When you get to nothing is more worthy of notice than the Wittenberg, greet for me Dr. Hieroni- serene peacefulness of the strong man, who is mus Schurf.' We said, “We will wil- riding through Thuringia under the bann of lingly do so, but we must give your name the Empire, with passionate care at his heart that he may know who it is greets him.” in respect of the great danger which threatened He replied, “Say nothing more than · He his teaching from the fanaticism of his own
partisans." who is coming greets you.' He will at once understand the words.” Then he remarkable in this true-hearted narrative than
I would venture to add that nothing is more left us to go to his chamber.
the exceeding kindness, and even politeness, Afterwards the merchants came back which the great man showed to these poor into the room and called the landlord to students, even manifested in such a sittle bring them a drink, during which they thing as providing for them their accustomed had much discourse about the guest, who beverage, wine, when they drank together the indeed he could be. Whereupon the land-cup of benediction on parting for the evening. lord let them know that he took him for Luther. Then the merchants talked over the matter, and vexed themselves greatly that they had spoken in so unseemly a manner before him. And they said they
From The Spectator.
BARON REUTER'S BARGAIN. would get up early in the morning, before he took his departure, and would beg Has anybody a nice little planet anyhim not to be angry with them, and not where for sale ? Because if he has, Baron take it ill that they had recognized his Reuter will make him a fair bid for all the person. This they did, and they found sulphur or mines it may contain, and all him in the morning in the stable ; but the springs it yields, will cover it with enMartin answered them, “ Last night, at gineers, and will raise a loan for its speedy supper, you said that you would give ten and final junction to the earth. We used gulden to Luther to confess him. When in days not long past to think Mr. Parish you do confess him, you will well see and rather spirited for buying in Canada a know whether I am Martin Luther.” | million acres in a block; rather admired Further he did not allow himself to be Francis Baring's coolness in drawing on recognized; but rose up and went to his father for the purchase of the Lake of Wittenberg.
Mexico in order to turn its shores into On the same day we set off for Naum- market gardens – for which the great burg, and we came to a village (it is situ- firm at home wrote him such a “wig; ated on a hill
, and I think the hill is have perceived a sort of grandeur in the called Orlamunde, and the village Nass- Rothschilds' monopoly of quicksilver ; hausen), and through it there ran a flood, and have written some highly laudatory which had broke forth by reason of the words of the cool sale by Mr. Ellice of great rains, and it had partly carried away the North Pole to the Crown. Baron a part of the bridge, so that no one could Reuter, however, it seems quite clear, has pass over it on horseback. We returned entirely outstripped all these feeble specto the village, and chanced to find the ulators, and that in a manner which can two merchants in the inn, who also, for never be transcended even by Mr. Charles Luther's sake, paid our reckoning. Reade's hero Joshua Fullalove, who
On the next Saturday, the day before dealt in islands considerable."' Baron the first Sunday in Lent, we paid a visit Reuter has bought Persia, at least everyto Dr. Hieronimus Schurf, to deliver our thing in it worth buying, and ought to letters of recommendation. As we were | ride on Friday to Guildhall with a long broom to clear the way for the King of | but people will say it is far off, so M. Kings. There never was since financing Reuter is empowered to remedy that diffibegan such a contract as he has conclud- culty. The Shah concedes to him the ed with the Shah, without attracting much monopoly of the right of making railways, notice from the public. Talk as the of cutting canals, of setting up telegraphs, Times does of his being Minister of Pub- of erecting gas works, of improving the lic Works, he is all that, and proprietor towns, of working the post-office, - in of Persia too. In the first place, he has fact, of doing everything that corporate possessed himself of all Persian Customs energy can do. His agents are promised for a period of twenty-five years, paying full protection, he has behind him for £20,000 more than the Government now workmen the millions of India, of the Afreceive during the first five years, and 60 rican coast, and of China, and he has for per cent of the nett receipt for the last first setting off any reasonable amount of twenty. In other words, Baron Reuter European capital. For though we can is master of all the frontiers of Persia, imagine dry capitalists on Change looking can stop or encourage all her trade with glum at the guarantee of a country yieldRussia, Turkey, India, and the Steppe; ing only £1,700,000, of revenue, of which can, if he is a good financier — which the Shah wants nearly the whole for himgoes on the evidence, without talking - self, or losing it might send M. Reuter to by appointing decent men to levy a 10 per a happier world, the interest is to be the cent. ad valorem tax, tithe the whole of a first charge on the Customs, which will trade which, honesty and light taxation be in the Baron's hands, and till it is paid once guaranteed, must speedily be enor- none of that sixty per cent is to go to
It is six millions even now in the the Shah. There never was in history Gulf alone. Why, the wheat trade alone such a bargain made, or one which, if from Kurrachee to Bushire ought to pay fully worked out, would give a concessionall expenses of collection in the Persian naire or a Company such a prospect of Gulf and on the Turkish frontier. This, making millions. The contract reads like however, the spring by which Mr. Lay so a story out of the “ Arabian Nights." nearly mastered China, is but a trifle. In truth, it reads only too well. If For accepting this princely gift of a for- Baron Reuter has truly obtained such a tune, the Baron is to have all the State contract, which we have no reason to mines in Persia, and all mines owned by doubt, and can raise a Company and a private persons on paying them, if the capital at all adequate to his task, he will mines are unopened, the surface value of find his first difficulty is that he must the soil, — say, nothing at all, and two have more power still, that he must dipence-halfpenny for the transfer deed. rectly as well as indirectly rule Persia. Land of that kind has no price in Persia, He must have such a charter as the Mowhere 4,000,000 live in a country twice gul gave Clive. He will find within a the size of France. All lands necessary year that he cannot raise customs withto the mines and to communications with out troops of his own, whose actions will the mines are handed over to the Baron be complained of at Teheran ; that he free, and the solitary things kept back cannot make his concession and the from him are a royalty of 15 per cent. on Shah's commercial treaties coincide, that the out-turn, all gold and silver, and we he will be in conflict at every point with presume, the turquoise of the Elburz. the Royal authority. Russia is not going Of course, the mines may be worthless, to leave her trade at the mercy of any prithough sulphur, to begin with, certainly vate individual. The Shah is not going exists, and if he does not find coal in 'a to give up his power to do as he likes, month he is a most unlucky man; but nor are his nephews and sons, nor are the Baron has not reduced himself to any his people. The Baron will need troops such chance as that. All the State for- everywhere out of the immediate range ests are his, and all the land included in of the Shah's authority, as well to put the forests, and all canals, wells, or water- down brigand incursions as to resist sudcourses existing or to be made, sup- den caprices at Teheran which might be plies upon which the very existence of fatal to all his works. What is there to the people may be made to depend. Per- prevent the Shah when the improvements sia needs only water, and all the land so are made, from complaining that his peomade productive belongs to Baron Reu- ple complain, or from objecting to the imter, the price of the water alone being port of Pagan workmen not slaves, or matter of consultation with the Shah. Irom pointing out that he never intended This looks like a nice extensive property, I to part with his royal authority in any
department? If the people of Teheran good deal has been revealed to us from should think gas sinful, what is to prevent the inscriptions at Murghab and Bebishis throwing Baron Reuter into the gas- tan, and we have every reason to connect ometer as a measure of popular concilia- the most ancient form of Persian with the tion? We do not believe that any Eastern Sanscrit or the Indo-Germanic; but posauthority whatever, not even the Duke of terity might have expected from the Argyll, dare give up the right of control ancient connexion between Greece and over the water when once turned on, or Persia more than it has actually got. dare meet the incessant insurrection From Spartan intrigues, Macedonian conwhich would be the consequence. The quests, and Roman expeditions, we ought misrepresentation, the intrigue, the efforts to have obtained something beyond inciafter plunder, in the Palace, would be in- dental notices of Oriental customs on cessant, and would in the end either which travellers have thrown doubts, and prove successful or compel the Persian scraps of dialects over which philologists Company, as they compelled the East In- have wrangled. Indeed, a distinct fragdia Company, to defend itself by its own ment has come down to us of another power, or the power of the great Viceroy- language spoken by a nation which sucalty behind it, in either case bidding adieu cumbed to force and has been razed out to profits. It is not a concession, it is a of history; Plautus, in his play of the sub-sovereignty M. Reuter is buying, Pænulus, has transmitted to us a speciand sub-sovereignties seldom succeed, men of the Punic language of sixteen the reason being that their acts affect the lines in length, such as it was when national life, while their motive is only a spoken by Hannibal ; and Semitic scholdividend. The sub-sovereignty always ars have felt no insurmountable difficulty comes either into collision with the Royal in deciphering at least ten lines of its power -- and Kings of Persia are persons purport from the cognate Hebrew. Yet, with strong ideas that their decrees are at one period, Persian was in all probalaws-or they declare themselves indepen-bility as familiar a sound in some of the dent. There is very little objection, from bazaars of Asia Minor as ever Carthaginour side at least, to that particular method ian could have been in the forum of of obtaining a permanent safeguard for Rome; and the jewels and brocades of India. If Baron Reuter has a Clive on his Persian deputies in Greek colonies doubtstaff, let him use him by all means, but less excited as much attention as the let him not delude either himself or the Punic wares of Hanno, which Macaulay world as to the possibility of “regenerat- characteristically places near the shaming Persia” without ruling it. The first bles of Volero the flesher, in the “ Lay of step he takes disliked by the Shah will | Virginia.” Themistocles was presented bring down the whole fabric or change by the Great King with the revenue of its character for that of a Royal Company; three cities; in other words, he obtained and how in the world is he to make an what would now be termed either a jaghir imperium in imperio like his satisfactory or an assignment for his personal supto a family which has never known a port. Grote, following Thucydides in check? It is hard enough to deal with preference to the exaggerations of Nepos, the Khedîvé, and with him we only come tells us that the Athenian general learnt in contact on one little isthmus which he in a year so much of “the Persian lanscarcely sees ; but to deal with the Ka-guage and customs as to be able personjars,- the late Shah had, we believe, 360 ally to communicate with the King, and children,- Baron Reuter will need armies to acquire his confidence.” And we all of soldiers as well as agents.
know that the apostles, after they had received the gift of tongues, were heard to speak in their own vernacular by “Parthians, Medes, and Elamites.” But,
for all this, no such thing as an edict, a From The Saturday Review,
set of current phrases, or a distinct senTHE PERSIAN LANGUAGE.
tence of the spoken language of Elam While jewellers are discussing the has come down to us in its original shape, probable value of the regalia of the Shah, through Greek or Roman writers, as far and financiers are doubting about the as we can discover. Aristophanes introprosperity of a State that has no public duces into one of his comedies a pseudodebt, a few words may not be out of place Persian, who, as might be imagined, talks regarding the polished language which is a gibberish akin to the thromuldo. boskos spoken by the King and his subjects. A which mystified Parolles. We have, how