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Fifth Series,
Volume III.

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No. 1520. — July 26, 1873.

From Beginning

Vol. CXVIII.

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CONTENTS. I. THE FRENCH PRESS. Part I.,

Cornhill Magazine,
II. INNOCENT: A Tale of Modern Life. By Mrs.

Oliphant, author of "Salem Chapel," "The
Minister's Wife," Squire Arden," etc.
Part IX.,

Graphic,
IIL THE DEPOSITION OF PETER THE THIRD, Atheneum,
IV. THE PRESCOTTS OF PAMPHILLON. By the

author of "Dorothy Fox.” Part VII., Good Words, V. CLEANLINESS versus GODLINESS,

Chambers' Journal,
VI. TRADITIONS OF STERNE AND BUNYAN, Macmillan's Magazine,
VII. STATION AMUSEMENTS IN New ZEALAND, Spectator,
VIIL THE WARM FULL MOON,

Spectator,
IX. MAIDEN AUNTS,

Liberal Review, X. THE POPE AT HOME,

Chambers' Journal,

POETRY.
AN OLD ROAD. By M. B. Smedley, 194 | ROSE LEAVES,
THE CLOUD,

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PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY
LITTELL & GAY, BOSTON.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. For Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING Age will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage. But we do not prepay postage on less than a year, nor when we have to pay commission for forwarding the money; nor when

we club the Living Age with another periodical. An extra copy of THE LIVING AGE is sent gratis to any oue getting up a club of Five New Subscribers.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-office money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter. All postmasters

are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & GAY.

AN OLD ROAD.

THE CLOUD. A CURVE of green tree-tops,

A CLOUD came over a land of leaves And a common wall below,

(O, hush, little leaves, lest it pass you by !) And a winding road, that dips and drops, How they had waited and watch'd for the rain, Ah me! where does it go?

Mountain and valley, and vineyard and plain, Down to the lovely days

With never a sign from the sky! Goes that familiar track,

Day after day had the pitiless sun And here I stand and wait and gaze,

Look'd down with a lidless eye. As if they could come back.

But now! On a sudden a whisper went Somewhere beneath that hill

Through the topmost twigs of the poplar. Are children's running feet,

spire ; And a little garden fair and still,

Out of the east a light wind blew Were never flowers so sweet !

(All the leaves trembled, and murmur'd, and And a house within an open door,

drew What was therein I know,

Hope to the help of desire), O! let me enter nevermore,

It stirred the faint pulse of the forest-tree But still believe it so.

And breathed through the brake and the brier. Up this oft-trodden slope

Slowly the cloud came : then the wind died, What visions rise and throng!

Dumb lay the land in its hot suspense : What keen remembrances of Hope The thrush on the bough suddenly stopLie shattered all along !

ped, These flowers that never grew,

The weather-warn’d swallow in mid-fying Bloom they in any clime ?

dropped, Can any spring to come renew

The linnet ceased song in the fence, What died in that sweet time?

Mute the cloud moved, till it hung overhead,

Heavy, big-bosom'd, and dense.
Here I believed in fame,
And found no room for fear;

Ah, the cool rush through the dry-tongued Here sprang to meet what never came;

trees, Here loved — what is not here !

The patter and plash on the thirsty earth, Not worth a moment's pause

The eager bubbling of runnel and rill, Seemed any fallen gem,

The lisping of leaves that have drunk their Not worth a sigh, a glance, because

fill, Life would be full of them.

The freshness that follows the dearth !

New life for the woodland, the vineyard, the The child in the fairy tale

vale, Dropped tokens as he passed,

New life with the world's new birth ! So pierced the darksome forest-veil

All The Year Round. And found his home at last; I, in the falling day,

Turn back through deeper gloom, By gathered memories feel my way Only to find — a tomb.

ROSE LEAVES. For there they lie asleep,

We stood beside the sleeping bay ; Eyes that made all things sweet,

She held my gift-rose in her hand; Hands of true pressure, hearts more deep

It was the last sweet trysting-day,
Than any left to beat ;

And then, ho! for a strange, far land. A world where all was great ;

She plucked each tender leaf apart, Paths trodden not, but seen;

And each leaf told its tale to me Light streaming through an open gate - Each leaf a hope torn from my heart : The world that might have been !

The leaves fell Auttering by the sea. Pictures, and dreams, and tears —

And oft in far-off lands I thought O Love, is this the whole?

Of one who never could be mine ; Nay, wrap your everlasting years

Who must be loved, but be unsoughtAbout my failing soul !

'Twas hard to love and not repine. The lightest word you spake

Those rose leaves withered on the sand, Beyond all time shall last

But other roses bloom for thee; These only sleep before they wake –

O lost love in the distant land, In Love there is no Past !

O rose leaves withered by the sea ! Good Words. M. B. SMEDLEY.

Once A Week

I.

From The Cornhill Magazine.

In the Middle Ages, news were dissemTHE FRENCH PRESS.

inated by chroniclers and troubadours ; I. FIRST PERIOD.

and it would be a mistake, therefore, to

attribute the popularity of the latter to THE FRENCH PRESS, FROM ITS FOUNDATION their mere vocal or musical proficiency. TO THE DEATH OF MAZARIN.

A troubadour was as welcome in hall or

village as the special edition of a modern The first Frenchman to found a printed newspaper. He came from afar, had newspaper was Dr. Théophraste Renau- endless things to tell, and only began his dot, who obtained the King's privilege singing when he had spun his yarns in for the Gazette de France in 1631. The prose. The troubadour's songs bore a idea was not a new one, for the Weekly likeness to the music-ball minstrelsies of News existed already in England ; and our own time, being jingling rhymes on so far back as the year 1568, the bankers the current topics of the day, rounded off Fugger of Augsburg had instituted a with witticisms more or less smart, accommercial news-sheet called Ordinari- cording to the skill of the singer; but the Zeittungen, which, though manuscript troubadour exercised many of the funcuntil the year 1600, enjoyed a very exten- tions of the nineteenth century leadersive circulation and differed but little writer, for he incited men to battle, and from the mercantile journals established was responsible for a good many of those since. The Venetians, however, are said rebellions against excessive taxation to have preceded the Germans, and the which could never have spread so rapidly derivation of the word gazette is ascribed as they did had there not been men to carry to the small coin paid by the public for from town to town in glowing language the copies of a news-bulletin first issued by reports of successful risings. Edward I. the Council of Ten during the wars of of England waged a pitiless war on the Venice against the Turks. Others pre- Welsh bards, for these men were dangerfer tracing gazette to gazza, Italian for ous in the same way as the National press the garrulous magpie ; and a few, with in Ireland is dangerous now, and as the that taste for riddles which is happily French Alsatian press is dangerous to imperishable, deduce the word from the Prince Bismarck. So again, when after Hebrew izgard, or messenger, thereby the agitations for municipal franchises in implying that gazettes were in some Philip Augustus's time, and after the shape known to the Children of Israel at jacqueries in the reign of Charles V., a date prior to the Acta Diurna of the many wandering minstrels were hanged, Romans, the Ephemerida of the Athe- it was not by any means for the same nians, and those Daily Chronicles of the reasons which conduce to the modern Babylonians, by the help of which Bero- prosecutions of organ-grinders. As to sius is said to have written his History the chronicles of the Middle Ages, these of Chaldæa.

assumed towards the fifteenth century The French have always been very more and more the character of periodical fond of news. Cæsar mentions in his intelligencers. They were not records Commentaries that the Gauls ran after which men compiled during a lifetime for strangers and mobbed them to ask posthumous publication ; but summaries whether they had any intelligence to of contemporary events, drawn up by communicate ; and this practice became indefatigable writers, chiefly monks or in time such a nuisance, by reason of the clerks in the households of noblemen, false rumours which obtained credence, and published four or five times a year, that among the well-ordered tribes a law sometimes oftener. Such of these chronwas made enjoining that strangers should icles as are extant offer interesting mines first be taken before the authorities, of research to the historian. They are who would decide in their wisdom what very minute in their narratives, and items of their information had best be would be well worth the reading of cer

tain enthusiasts who imagine that every

kept secret.

was

age previous to this one was steeped in

Sont d'estranges manières, barbarism up to the ears. We learn from

Sauvages et velus. them that there was plenty of homely lib

D'or et d'argent minières erty and of good justice, too, for those who

Voit on en ces pallus.* kept clear of conspiracies, irreligion, or Gutemberg's invention did not for a theft. Men went to church more than is long while suggest the notion of printed the present fashion, dressed as the sump- newspapers, but the religious wars which tuary laws required - that is, according to raged throughout the sixteenth century their means and station, without all trying effected a great move in that direction by to ape their betters — and were deterred the inauguration of printed manifestoes, by the fear of whipping from that sort of accounts of battles and tales of martyrbusiness competition which takes shape doms which the Protestants of Germany in false weights and measures.

But in and England circulated among the Hugueother respects, they had as great a fancy nots of France, and vice versâ, to fire as their descendants for gathering in the each other's zeal. Not a Reformer market-places to air their grievances, and crossed the frontier of a state where the if a traveller brought them news of war, religious strife was in progress without court-jousts, distant plagues, or new bringing, concealed in his saddle-bags or books, an epitome of the same

in the lining of his doublet, some printed quickly engrossed on a sheet of paper, of scrap to tell how it fared with the good which copies found brisk sale for some- cause in the country he was leaving, and thing like a halfpenny of our present some of these scraps, notably those which money.

were despatched from France after the Life being very local during the feudal massacre of St. Bartholomew, are veritaera, almost every town had its chronicles, ble newspapers. They were written in and these jumbled big events and little Latin, the universal tongue then, and contogether in a way that was occasionally tained a graphic and most sensational odd; but the chroniclers of Paris, writ-, résumé of all the cruel things that had ing in a city that was the centre of the been done — the murder of Coligny, the whole world's news, exercised discrimi- butchering of women and children by nation in their editing, and as a rule re- torchlight, the bloody mass of thanksgivcorded only facts that were worth the ing attended by Henri de Guise and his mention. Thus in the rhyming chron-red-handed accomplices in the Church of icles, begun by George Chastelain and St. Germain l'Auxerrois on the morning continued by Jehan Molinet over a space

of the 26th of August, 1572, after the of seventy years

1428-1498 — events of massacre was over, and even that disgeneral importance only were inserted; puted fact (though, by the way, everything and in the versical summary which con- is now disputed), of Charles IX. having cludes these chronicles, and gives the pith himself fired on his Protestant subjects of them, we find the invention of printing from a window at the Louvre. The King, and the discovery of America thus allud- who seems to have learned that reports ed to :

of his high deeds were being printed,

launched a fulminating edict against all J'ai veu grant multitude

and any who should be found with copies De livres imprimés

of the seditious sheets in their possesPour tirer en estude Povres mal argentez;

sion; and on the 2nd September, one Par ces nouvelles modes

Nicolas Beschelle, a barber, was hanged Aura maint escolier Decrets, Bibles et Codes,

*“I have seen a great multitude of printed books,

to beguile into study the poor with little money. Thanks Sans grant argent bailler.

to these new fashions many a scholar will obtain De

crees, Bibles and Codes without having much to pay, J'ai vu deux ou trois isles

I have seen two or three islands discovered in my time, Trouvées en mon temps,

fertile in mysteries, and whose inhabitants are in a sinDe chucades fertiles,

gular manner wild and hairy. Mines of gold and silver Et dont les habitants

are to be seen in those swamps."

on the Place de Grêve for being discov- primed with special information. Moreered in the vain act of trying to decipher over, he is cognizant of everything that one of these luckless Latin prints, which takes place in town, and especially things he had just picked up in the roadway. of a scandalous nature, and he will be the But the religious wars laid the foundations first to tell you that a certain widow," of modern journalism in other manners &c.- Writing 1700 years later, La than by printed handbills. The necessi- Bruyère and Montesquieu give exactly ties of warfare led to the improvement of the same complimentary account of the roads everywhere, and to the making of Parisian newsmen as we have here of the new ones ; the communications between Roman, though by the time when Monthe capital and the provinces became tesquieu wrote, the newsmen had wellmore frequent; the post established by nigh disappeared under the influx of Louis IX. acquired such a development, gazetteers and journalists. At the period that on the pacification of the kingdom when the newsmen of Paris were in their by Henri IV. the mail began to leave full flood-tide, that is, during the first half Paris once every day, instead of three of the seventeenth century, they had five times a week as in Francis II.'s time, and meeting-places : the Gardens of the Tuiall these improvements gave birth to a leries, those of the Palais Royal, the Great body of individuals who are the fathers Hall at the Palais de Justice, and the of now-a-day chroniqueurs, feuilletonistes Cloisters'of the Augustine and Celestine and reporters, and who constituted a very convents. By-and-by a quarrel arose popular corporation under the name of between the frequenters of these rival Nouvellistes or Newsmen.

spots as to which of them furnished the Newsmen had flourished in ancient best news, and the matter gave rise to a Rome, and Livy, Seneca, Tacitus, and kind of joint-stock arrangement, by which most other grave writers speak of them the Tuileries became, from three to five with disfavour. They were of two sorts every afternoon, the head-quarters of all - the Subrostrani and the Parasites : the news collected at other places during the former open-air newsmen who clustered morning. The newsmen began their near the rostrum in the Forum ; the lat- rounds at the Palace of Justice, then went ter babbling toadies, who waited upon to the Place de Grêve, where criminals great people in the morning with a budget were flogged or executed at midday, and of chit-chat and tattle. Seneca says of afterwards strode off in a body for the the Subrostrani, that they were “shame- Palais Royal, in the gardens of which less ferreters of anecdotes of a scandalous most stock-exchange operations were sort - echoes of all that is disreputable ; ” effected. Towards three, a veteran newsand Livy, that, “although these chatter- man, who acted as master of the ceremoboxes have never set foot beyond the Fo- nies, came, and made a selection of the rum, they know better than any general most decently dressed among the Palais how an army should be commanded and Royal set (for the sentries at the Tuileries a town besieged. They are great winners admitted none but well-dressed people), of lost or unfought battles.” The Para- and with these in tow, set off for the site is handled in a similar style by Mar- terrace skirting the present river-side tial :-“The fellow invents news which quay. Here a regular bubble and canard he relates as true. He knows what the mart was held. King of the Parthians has resolved in his Those who wish to form any concepprivy council ; he can tell you to a man tion of it can find a pale reflex in the how many soldiers there are in the Rhine Bourse of our own time on a panic day, army and in that of the Sarmatians. He in the Petite Bourse held every evening by is in a position to communicate the sub- Parisian stock-jobbers in the Passage de stance of what the King of the Dacians l'Opéra. But what are these squib exhas confided to his generals in secret changes, even at the most excited modespatches; all the hidden things of pol- ments, compared to the Tuileries at the itics are familiar to him, and he is always |date when there were no public prints to

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