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deed, by impeding the passage of the ! kinds of heat ; she reflects solar heat just solar rays, but by bearing aloft the cloud- as she reflects solar light, and she also veil which the sun raises from our oceans gives out the heat by which her own sur- the moon's surface must become in- face has been warmed. tensely hot long before the middle of the It may perhaps occur to the reader to lunar day. Undoubtedly the want of an inquire how much heat we actually obtain atmosphere causes the moon's heat to be from the full moon. There is a simple rapidly radiated away into space. It is way of viewing the matter. If the full our atmosphere which causes a steady moon were exactly as hot as boiling wabeat to prevail on our earth. And at the ter, we should receive from her just as summits of lofty mountains, where the much heat (leaving the effect of our atmoatmosphere is rare, although the mid-day sphere out of account) as we should reheat is intense, yet so rapidly does the ceive from a small globe as hot as boilheat pass away that snow crowns for ever ing water, and at such a distance as to the mountain heights. Yet although the look just as large as the moon does. Or moon's heat must pass away even more a disc of metal would serve equally well. rapidiy, this does not prevent the heating Now the experiment may be easily tried. of the moon's actual surface, any more A bronze halfpenny is exactly one inch than the rarity of the air prevents the Al- in diameter, and as the moon's average pine traveller from feeling the action of distance is about all times her own the sun's direct heat even when the air in diameter, a half-penny at a distance of shadow is icily cold. Accordingly Sir 11 inches, or three yards and three John Herschel long since pointed out inches, looks just as large as the moon. that the moon's surface must be heated Now let a halfpenny be put in boiling at lunar mid-day - or rather, at the time water for a while, so that it becomes as of lunar mid-heat, corresponding to about hot as the water; then that coin taken two o'clock in our afternoon to a de- quickly and set three yards from the obgree probably surpassing the heat of boil- server will give out, for the few moments ing water.
that its heat remains appreciably that of Šuch, in point of fact, has now been boiling water, as much heat to the obproved to be the case. The Earl of server as he receives from the full moon Rosse has shown, by experiments which supposed to be as hot as boiling water. need not here be described, that the Or a globe of thin metal, one inch in moon not only reflects heat to the earth diameter and full of water at boiling-heat, (which of course must be the case), but would serve as a more constant artificial that she gives out heat by which she has moon in respect of heat-supply. It need been herself warmed. The distinction not be thought remarkable, then, if the may not perhaps appear clear at first heat given out by the full moon is not sight to every reader, but it may easily easily measured,' or even recognized. be explained' and illustrated. If, on a Imagine how little the cold of a winter's bright summer's day, we take a piece of day would be relieved by the presence, in smooth, but not too well polished, metal, a room no otherwise warmed, of a oneand by means of it reflect the sun's light inch globe of boiling water, three yards upon the face, a sensation of heat will be away! And by the way, we are here reexperienced ; this is reflected sun-heat: minded of an estimate by Prof. C. P. bnt if we wait while so holding the metal Smyth, resulting from observations made until the plate has become quite hot on the moon's heat during his Teneriffe under the solar rays, we shall recognize a experiments. He found the heat equal sensation of heat from the mere prox- to that emitted by the hand at a distance imity of the plate to the face, even when of three feet. the plate is so held as not to reflect .sun- But after all, the most interesting reheat. We can in succession try, - first, sults flowing from the recent researches reflected heat alone, before the metal has are those which relate to the moon hergrown hot; next, the heat which the self. We cannot but speculate on the metal gives out of itself when warmed by condition of a world so strangely circumthe sun's rays ; and lastly, the two kinds stanced that a cold more bitter than that of heat together, when the metal is of our Arctic nights alternates with a caused to reflect sun-heat, and also (be- heat exceeding that of boiling water. It ing held near the face) to give out a sen- is strange to think that the calm-looking sible quantity of its own warmth. What moon is exposed to such extraordinary Lord Rosse has done has been to show vicissitudes. There can scarcely be life that the full moon sends earthwards, both in any part of the moon — unless it be
underground life, like that of the Modoc see but a little way into the plan of CreaIndians (we commend this idea specially tion, and that what appears to us waste to the more ardent advocates of Brew- may in reality be an essential and imsterian ideas respecting other worlds portant part of the great scheme of than ours). And yet there must be a sin- Nature. gularly active mechanical process at work in yonder orb. The moon's substance must expand and contract marvellously as the alternate waves of heat and cold
From The Liberal Review. pass over it. The material of that cratercovered surface must be positively crum
MAIDEN AUNTS. bling away under the effects of these ex- It is the lot of some people to be repansions and contractions. The most garded as lawful objects of plunder by the plastic terrestrial substances could not majority of those friends with whom they long endure such processes, and it seems are brought in immediate contact. The altogether unlikely that any part of the typical maiden aunt is one of these unformoon's crust is at all plastic. Can we tunate persons. Generally possessed of wonder if from time to time astronomers a little property, she is surrounded by a tell us of apparent changes in the moon, hungry clique, who not only try to get all
a wall sinking here or a crater vanish- they can out of her while she lives, but ing elsewhere. The wonder rather is resort to numerous stratagems to induce that the steep and lofty lunar mountains her to leave them her money when she have not been shaken long since to their departs on the mysterious journey through very foundations.
the Valley of the Shadow of Death. HowOur Moon presents, in fact, a strange ever disagreeable may be her temper, problem for our investigation. It is grat- however stagnant her intellect, and lowifying to us terrestrials to regard her
as a ever mean her disposition, she is flattered mere satellite of the earth, but in reality and cajoled to such an extent that she she deserves rather to be regarded as a may well be excused for believing that companion planet. She follows a path she is one of the most talented and esround the sun which so nearly resembles timable beings in the universe. There that pursued by the earth, in shape as is reason to think that, like most people, well as in extent, that if the two paths she is only too ready to accept the show were traced down on a quarto sheet it for the substance. Occasionally, howwould not be easy to distinguish one ever, she demonstrates that she detests from the other. Our earth is simply the the contemptible humbug of those who largest, while the moon is the smallest of prostrate themselves before her, and she that inner family over which the sun evidences that the knowledge — like many bears special sway, nor does Mercury other possessions — does not make her exceed the Moon to so great a degree in at all the happier. It generates an acermass and in volume as the earth or Venus bity of demeanour on her part towards exceeds Mercury: Yet the moon, with those whose hypocrisy she fancies she her surface of fourteen million square detects, that whatever affection she may miles, seems to be beyond a doubt a be regarded with is changed into a feeling mere desert waste, without air or water, akin to positive dislike. Sometimes she exposed to alternations of heat and cold shows how she detests those who hunt which no living creature we are acquaint- her down by passing them over, and, to ed with could endure ; and notwithstand their immense chagrin, leaving all her ing her position as an important member money to a charity, of which the only of the solar system, as well as the un- thing she knows is its correct title. Thus, doubted fact that in her motion she obeys it may safely be said that the relations the sun in preference to the earth, she between the typical maiden aunt and her has nevertheless been so far coerced by connections are not of the most satisfacthe earth's influence as to be compelled tory nature. Those who pay their court to turn always the same face towards her to her in the manner indicated feel angry larger companion orb, so that not a ray with themselves all the time that they are from the earth ever falls upon fully five so acting. The natural outcome of their millions of square miles of the farther repugnance of the proceeding is that, lunar hemisphere. A waste of matter here, while extravagantly praising lier before we might say, and a waste of all the energy her face, they just as extravagantly abuse which is represented by the moon's mo- behind her back. Each little foible that tions, did we not remember that we can'she may happen to possess is criticised
in a most ill-natured manner, and it is contemplates taking to himself a wife, she plainly rendered evident that, were she imagines that he should first procure her not a moneyed body, she would be quickly opinion upon the subject. If Miss Florry relegated to a position which she is per- buy a mantle or a dress she is offended if haps much more fitted to adorn than she her judgment is not consulted in the is that which she occupies.
matter. And so on ad libitum. It is Generally, the conduct of the maiden principally her nephews and nieces who aunt offers many openings for hostile are brought within the sphere of her incriticism. Notably, she often affects a fluence. Almost, in many instances, from singularity of attire and an eccentricity of the day when they can understand articudemeanour which are calculated to attract late speech, the latter are instructed to unfavourable notice. To those who feel pay court to their rich maiden aunt, in the compelled by the strongest of all motives, hope that she will “ do something for viz., that of self-interest, to ostentatiously them.” They are taught to put their likes recognize the maiden aunt and claim rela- and dislikes upon one side, and simulate tionship with her, all this is apt to prove affection, though they feel it not. The peculiarly aggravating: Young Spriggs, nieces are prompted to make many little who is a bit of a dandy, feels mortified trifles in the way of needle-work and emwhen any of his friends meet him with a broidery, and to present them to her. woman who is either a complete dowdy The nephews are shown that it is to their or a dressed-up "guy,” exhibiting fash- interest to devote themselves chivalrously ions which are, alternately, greatly in ad- to her service and make a great pretence vance and greatly in the rear of the age of courting her society. Whether ail this Young Spriggs's position is not rendered leads to satisfactory results is more than more comfortable by an unflinching doubtful. Certainly children are not imdetermination on his aunt's part to assert proved by the spirit of humbug and hyhers. It may be a grand thing for peo-pocrisy being infused into them at an ple to have convictions of their own, but early age. Their moral characters must it is on that account none the less un- be greatly deteriorated by their being subpleasant for those most nearly concerned jected to the treatment indicated. They to hear the maiden aunt defying contra- are taught to believe that it is quite diction and enunciating sentiments which proper for them to advance themselves make all those who hear them open their by other means than legitimate labour. eyes very widely. It is one of her most certainly it does not improve the maiden strongly marked characteristics that she aunts, for they fail to see people as they has persuaded herself that she has thought really are. They are, moreover, denied upon every subject, and come to correct that opposition and shielded from those conclusions thereon. Indeed, it may be rude rebuffs which tend to make men and said that she flatters herself that she women better than when they have everyknows more about almost every matter thing their own way. Thus they become than does any living person. There is captious and impatient of the opinions of some excuse for this. Those who are others. Of the morality of teaching young brought into closest communication with people to act towards the maiden aunt so her are careful to avoid contradicting her. as to receive pecuniary reward we say They coincide with most of what she nothing. It would be simply impossible says, and, when disputes arise, give in to to write anything favourable. Of course, her “superior judgment.” Thus she is what we have printed does not apply in unconsciously led to place greater im- all cases, but it does in a very great many. portance upon her own talents and powers This is cause for regret. Granted that generally than, under ordinary circum- this is a mercenary age, there should be stances, she might be induced to do. some check put upon the pounds, shillings, L'pon the principle that despots crave for and pence spirit. The typical maiden even more power than they possess, she aunts should not be treated simply as obgrows tired of controlling those merely jects from which so much may be drawn, who voluntarily place themselves under nor should they be accorded á deference her thumb and endeavours to dictate to to which their intellectual and moral atall who cross her path.
tainments do not entitle them, because The interference of the maiden aunt is they happen to possess a little money and not always a thing to be courted. She is have not many apparent ways of disposing apt to lose her temper if her suggestions of the same. be not acted upon. If young Spriggs
From Chambers' Journal. twelve there was a stir; some one col• THE POPE AT HOME.
lected from us our invitations, which At last the hour of eleven arrived, and were not again returned ; a throng of we drove to the Vatican, where the fa- velvet-clad prelates appeared at the door; mous Swiss Guard — lanky, ill-shaped then at last, surrounded by cardinals and men, it must be confessed, in yellow and monsignors, these in purple, the cardiblack trousers, with long dark-blue coats nals with little caps on, he all in white, - pointed out our way. Their hideous Pio Nono sailed in. All but the heretics costume is said, of course, to have been knelt. The heretics bowed. A Spandesigned, by Michael Angelo ; and an iard, who had brought a cross to be American traveller gave us the myth blessed, knelt down, prostrated himself which has grown up round its origin. upon the ground, and rubbed his fore“ I will tell you," he said, “the secret head upon the foot of the pope. All the history of the uniform of the Swiss visitors had been ranged in line ; and Guard. In early days the brave and fa- the pope passed along the line, giving to mous Swiss Guards were not so sedulous each person his ringed hand to kiss, the in their attendance to duty as might have whitest, plumpest little hand it had ever been expected. The soldiers of a pope been my fortune to see. He asked us in are but men after all, and just as Knights- French if we were Americans, expressed bridge Barracks are said to supply the his delight at being answered in Italian, British housemaid with many an Adonis, and pronounced the blessing, from which, so when a Swiss had failed to answer to by polite but expressive gesture, he the roll-call, he was often found to have seemed to exclude us who were not of been detained by some trans-Tiberine the faithful :-“Benedictio Dei OmnipoVenus. Thereupon, Michael Angelo in- tentis descendat super vos et maneat semvented this uniform. It is considered to i per, in nomine Patris, et Filti et Spiritus be the greatest triumph of his genius, Sancti.” Then he passed into the next and he vindicated its place among the room, and we trooped into the anteforemost creations of art by the complete chamber, to see him again as he came ness with which it fulfills its purpose. out. Ladies, and gentlemen who brought Since this uniform was invented, no ladies, had been received in the second Swiss Guard has at any time excited the room ; and we met a friend who had esmost transient feeling of admiration in corted, besides an English lady, the any female breast.” We reached on foot daughter of the landlord of his lodgings. a great court-yard, to which the cardinals? Through his landlord's interest with the carriages are admitted ; and after some prior of a convent he had that morning trouble in discovering the door, we found obtained admission. That is how we ourselves within the private dwelling of saw the pope. No questions had been His Holiness. Our letter was inspected asked about religion, nor, as far as we by a person who appeared to be His could ascertain, about social standing, Holiness's butler, and we were ushered The pope receives constantly, and is said through several rooms into a splendid to enjoy the proceeding very much, probchamber hung with tapestry designed by ably taking as a tribute to his sovereignRaphael. We talked a little to the offi- ty what is often 'nothing more than curicer of the guard who was waiting there, osity, Curiosity is sometimes not temand who spoke nothing but Italian. A pered with much respect; and we met private soldier whom we afterwards ad- at Naples two young Englishmen fresh dressed knew no language except Ger- from Eton, who, having received tickets man, and it became matter of wonder- for an audience held on Thursday, ment to us how the corps could under-left on Wednesday, after returning stand the orders of its commanders. their invitations, in order not to miss After this, Monsignor Stonor come, and, the fine weather. It may sound ungratelearning that we were Englishmen, en- ful in our mouths to say so, but it seems tertained us with a few minutes' conver- to us that the easy kind of introduction sation ; then half a dozen other visitors upon which the pope grants audiences entered the room, some bearing cruci- has a tendency to make him what is exfixes and rosaries which were to receive pressively termed “too cheap." the pope's benediction. A little after
No. 1521. - August 2, 1873.
From Beginning, ? Vol. CXVIII.
CONTENTS. 1. FRENCH MARRIAGE,
“ The Last Days of Pompeii,” “My Novel,”
Oliphant, author of “Salem Chapel,”'“ The
Cornhill Magazine, VI. PERSIAN ETIQUETTE AND PECULIARITIES,
258 | BETWEEN THE LIGHTS, IN AN Apple-ORCHARD; :
258 | AGAINST THE TIDE,
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