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was he the leader of any sect or party; displayed in ecclesiastical administration and even his oratory would have been would alone have formed a sufficient more impressive if it had been less ready proof that he was no intellectual trifler. and Auent; yet it was universally felt If the welfare of the Church of England that he was the most conspicuous 'mem- had not been the chief object of his ber of his order, and that his great abili- thoughts, he might perhaps have been a ties and his untiring activity were charac- more determined and zealous politician. terized by something of the temperament It is scarcely possible that an English of genius. The peers who took part in prelate should be a revolutionist, but the the conversation on Tuesday last spoke Conservative tendencies of the Bishop more fully of the merits of Lord West- of Winchester were always tempered by bury than of the qualities of the far an intelligent tendency to Liberalism. more popular Bishop. One reason of the His first speech in the House of Lords preference was the comparative ease with was directed against the Corn Laws; and which a tribute could be paid to the pre- he cultivated through life the hostility to eminence of a great jurist and judge. negro slavery which he had inherited The Bishop of Winchester was not to be from his father. As the companion of measured by any particular work with statesmen, with some pretension to be which his name will be identified.
himself a statesman, he was The inflexions of his earnest and pa- against the narrow fanaticism of the thetic voice sometimes raised an un- clerical recluse. Religion cannot “lift founded doubt of his sincerity. Natu- her mitred head in Courts and Parliarally impulsive, and inevitably eloquent, ments” without sharing the tolerance he inquired after the health of an ac- and the largeness of thought which prequaintance in almost the tone of plain- vail in secular assemblies. On the other tive anxiety which might have befitted a hand, the Bishop's worldly associates question of life or of fortune. The same and social equals were compelled in his apparent excess or waste of feeling im- presence to treat religion with external paired, more than any other drawback, the respect ; and some of them were probaeffect of his public oratory. He was so bly attracted to his side by finding that much accustomed to employ all his per- zeal and orthodoxy were not incompatisuasive powers for the immediate pur- ble with external graces and intellectual pose, that he sometimes proposed a vote accomplishments. The attacks to which of thanks to a Royal chairman with al- the Bishop was often subject proceeded most the same seeming fervour which either from strangers or from professed had previously moved the audience to antagonists, and not from the members sympathy with his advocacy of some of the various social and political circles great religious or philanthropic cause. in which he was familiarly known. It is No man was really less prone to confuse not to his discredit that he entertained a comparative degrees of importance, or to professional ambition which was but imsquander enthusiasm on trifles. His in- perfectly crowned with success. If he difference expressed itself less in cold- had deliberately employed his great ness of voice and manner than in an powers and remarkable opportunities for irony which derived much of its force his own personal aggrandizement, he from a certain solemnity of manner. His would long since have been Archbishop personal epigrams were pointed and se- of Canterbury. Liberal or Conservative vere ; and, like all men of wit, he was Ministers would have been equally glad sometimes tempted into momentary in- | to reward the devoted partisanship of so justice by the opportunity of inventing powerful an adherent; nor would it have and applying a happy phrase. The best been difficult to consult the supposed proof of the absence of malignity was predilections of the Court. The opinions the openness with which he proclaimed which he most earnestly professed were, his passing antipathies. The anger which as he well knew, ofter unpopular in high habitually assumes a humorous form is places; nor could he be ignorant that, if never profound or venomous. Of all he would have consented from time to passions, hatred is the most incompatible time to efface himself, he would have re. with the play of comic imagination. It moved a principal obstacle to his promomight be thought scarcely worth while to tion. None of his friends would have discuss in detail the social peculiarities included in a catalogue of his qualificaof an eminent man, if they furnished no tions the virtue of habitual moderation illustration of his public career. The and prudence in little matters. He often ability and assiduity which the Bishop disappointed his adversaries by shrinking from extremes which they may have The bribe which would have been almost thought to be the logical consequence of certainly offered would have been the his avowed opinions; but he was not recognition of an independence which solicitous to abstain from collision with has now been attained by amicable negominor prejudices. Unfriendly critics tiation. It is still possible that an Egypmight discover in his character foibles tian Khedive might be tempted to betray which were exaggerated by gossip and his allegiance by an offer of facilities for rumour; but it is an ungracious task to extending, his dominions ; but it seems dilate on the ordinary imperfections of that the former designs of Egypt on humanity. The race of courtly and Syria and Arabia have been abandoned, genial ecclesiastics, who were neverthe- and the reigning Khedive is inclined less zealous in their calling, is fast dying rather to push his conquests at the exout.
pense of the uncivilized negro races in the South. Either through policy or from a sentiment of loyalty, the Viceroys of Egypt have now for many years culti
vated friendly relations with the Porte, From The Saturday Review.
and it is remarkable that the Albanian THE SULTAN AND THE KHEDIVE.
dynasty of Mehemet Ali has attained its The large concessions which have present elevation without any violent been obtained by the Khedive of Egypt rupture with the sovereign Power, or during his visit to Constantinople indi- rather, after the termination of a tempocate on the part of the Turkish Govern- rary struggle, which has been followed ment a statesmanlike superiority to preju- by a long period of harmony and deferdice. The Khedive has satisfied the ence. At one time the affairs of the Porte that he will be a faithful ally on East seemed likely to take a different condition of being relieved from irksome course. obligations of dependence. The use of Forty years have passed since Ibrahim the Ottoman flag and coinage will still defeated the Turkish army at Konieh, serve as an acknowledgment of such an and advanced within a few marches of allegiance as great feudatories in the Constantinople. He had previously taken middle ages bore to their nominal Sov- Acre, which was recaptured by the Engereigns; but for all practical purposes lish troops seven years later, and he was Egypt will in time of peace be an inde practically master of Syria. The threatpendent kingdom, with the power of ened overthrow of the Sultan's power raising taxes, of contracting loans, of furnished the Russians with an excuse negotiating with foreign Powers, and of for entering Constantinople and for exmaintaining a naval and military force. torting from the Porte the notorious An odd exception is made as to ironclad Treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi. In the intervessels, which are not to be constructed val between 1833 and 1840, the French without the consent of the Porte. It was Government, instigated by vanity and by probably thought expedient to reserve jealousy of England, gave an active supfor some future occasion a concession port to Mehemet Ali's claims of indewhich may perhaps command a suitable pendence and of the possession of Syria ; price. In return for the liberal grants but the resolute policy of Lord Palmerof the Porte, the Khedive is to aid the ston eventually prevailed over the exerSultan against external enemies with all tions of M. Guizot and M. Thiers, and the forces at his disposal; and, for the the Viceroy was finally confined to his present at least, he is probably satisfied Egyptian dominions. At the same time that, in defending the Turkish Empire, the English Government, supported by he will consult his interest as well as his Austria, Russia, and Prussia, induced duty. While his vassalage was ostensi- the Sultan to acknowledge the right of bly more complete, the ruler of Egypt Mehemet to transmit his power to his could not have been compelled to furnish descendants. It is a remarkable fact the contingent which might have been that, since the forcible interruption lawfully demanded by the Imperial Gov- of their ambitious projects, the Viceroys ernment. During the disturbances in of Egypt have betrayed no disposition to Crete, the Khedive gave effective aid to rebel against the Porte. Mehemet and the Porte, but it was always possible that Ibrahim probably misunderstood their an enemy of Turkey might have re- own interest when they attempted to deceived, for adequate consideration, the prive the Sultan of a large portion, or neutrality or the assistance of Egypt. Tof the whole, of his dominions. It was
scarcely possible that a usurping dynasty any man to care for brothers or cousins should maintain the independence of the 'as for his own descendants; and the
Turkish Empire ; and if they had estab- ruler who knows that he will not be suclished themselves at Constantinople, or ceeded by his son feels himself in the even in Syria, they would have loosened position of a life tenant with a stranger their hold on Egypt, which forms the in remainder. Accordingly, like more firmest basis of their power. In that than one Egyptian Viceroy, he occupies province alone a Mahometan ruler is re- himself in the accumulation of wealth for lieved from the inconvenience of govern- his family, in entire disregard of the fuing a Christian population. The sub- ture prosperity of his country. The jects of the Khedive are better affected greatest advantage of hereditary monto the Government than the Rayahs of archy is the identity of interest which it Bulgaria and Roumelia, and they are produces between the sovereign and the more docile and laborious than the Turks. subject. As Burke said of Indian adThe Viceroys have for more than one ministrators whom he denounced for generation shown good sense in availing cupidity, birds of passage are sometimes themselves of the services of European birds of prey. It is in every way desirofficers and engineers. The administra- able that the actual owner should have tion of the country is not altogether sat-sufficient motives for improving the esisfactory; but great material improve- tate. The only objection to the change ments have been effected, and Egypt is (is the possible danger of transition in now by far the richest part of the Otto- creating pretenders with plausible claims. man Empire. In the absence of dissent Some of the Turkish Ministers who have there is neither persecution nor religious lately followed one another in rapid sucfanaticism, and the imitative civilization cession have recommended themselves which has been introduced will probably in to the favour of the Sultan by professed the course of years, become less artificial. devotion to the object which he is known At one time the Viceroy went so far as to to contemplate. His grant of direct sucestablish a Parliament, but the institu- cession to the Khedive will be regarded tion failed because no threat or promise at Constantinople as an avowal of his insufficed to embolden any member to be- tention to leave his throne to his son in long to the Opposition.
preference to collateral claimants. There A main concession which has been is no reason why any friendly Power made to the Khedive is important both should hesitate to recognize a change in itself and because it is intended to which is evidently advantageous to the have a reflected operation. The heredi- country. tary succession of the Egyptian dynasty is henceforth to follow the European rule of primogeniture ; and it is well known that the Sultan has long been anxious to establish the same order of descent in his own family. In many ages and countries collateral heirs of mature age have been Now that the audience question has preferred to the infant sons of deceased been solved and set at rest for ever – rulers, on the obvious ground of their for this is one of those steps which can greater fitness to discharge at once the never be retraced — we may convenientduties of their office. In Turkey and in ly make a fresh survey of our relations Egypt the system has been so far ex- with China and its near neighbour Japan. tended as to give the brother priority It is doubtful whether the Foreign Ofover the son ; and the consequent jeal- fice ever rightly understood the question ousy, which often led to fratricide, has or appreciated its importance. The acalmost passed into proverb. Aristotle tual intercourse that may follow with the is compared by Bacon to an Otto- young Emperor may not amount to much man Sultan who thinks his throne in- | beyond a formal presentation, and whatsecure till he has killed all his brothers; ever influence may be derived from perand Pope applied the same illustration to sonal communication is unlikely to make the jealous temper of Addison. Even in itself felt for many years to come. Its the East the wholesale murder of rela- real importance is to be estimated by the tives would now be reprobated by public influence it is calculated to exercise on opinion ; but the effects of collateral suc- the minds of the Chinese subjects of the cession, when it is not interrupted by Emperor, both as regards his relation to violence, are incompatible with national foreigners and themselves. So long as welfare. No law or custom will induce the tradition was maintained that the "Son
From The Pall Mall Gazette. THE FAR EAST.
of Heaven was a true title for the ruler national change of sentiment which, as of China, and that no other ruler or Sov- much as anything else, has probably conereign could claim equality with this tributed to the official recognition of the Kings of Kings and Supreme Governor foreign representatives. The solution of of the Universe, it was impossible to the audience question is treated by some treat with the people, and still less with of our contemporaries as a great triumph the governing classes, on any footing of of diplomacy, and as one reflecting great equality. They wrapped themselves in credit on the foreign representatives pride and conceit, and despised the Bar- now at Peking. But those who know barian in their hearts, whatever his pow. best what has been long going on in er to trample on them in return. All China can only regard it as a natural and this must now give way before the fact, necessary consequence of all that has known of all men, that the foreign en- gone before. During the negotiations voys even the Japanese — have been in 1869 for a revision of treaties, it was admitted to the Imperial presence erect, well understood by the foreign represenand as representatives of equal and in- tatives in communication with the Yadependent Sovereigns, with no kotooing men — and of course by the British Minor genuflexions indicative of vassalage, ister more especially engaged — that and no tribute with which to purchase whenever the Emperor came to his majoracceptance of their mission. The Chi-ity the fitting reception of the Diplomatic nese are slow in thought and in action Corps could not be deferred. That the in both somewhat resembling ourselves — Chinese should defer the hour of sacribut when once they move or thoroughly fice as long as they could was only natadmit an idea, they do so wholly and per- ural. A man may be willing to die or to sistently. How their own relations to be executed, but he does not usually hastthe Emperor and his Government may en his steps toward the scaffold. The be affected by the public renunciation of Chinese as a nation, as well as the more his long-asserted supremacy over all the intelligent of the ruling and official classnations of the earth, in virtue of Divine es, have long seen that there was a power right and descent, it may be hazardous in western civilization to which they could to say. And yet we are convinced that offer no effective resistance. They have some changes must result, and they are been slow in giving any public manifeslikely to be neither few nor trivial. How tation of this conviction, but it has been they will affect the general position of growing ever since the last war, which foreigners, and the bearing of the whole gave the allies possession of Peking, and nation towards them, is another question. destroyed with the Summer Palace of its In all probability although radical change Sovereigns very much of their prestige. is inevitable, it will not be very apparent From that day to this they have turned or widely spread at first. Already a half- their thoughts, and nearly all their enerconscious doubt of the validity of the gies, to the creation of arsenals, dockEmperor's claims to universal suprem- yards, and disciplined troops, after the acy had sapped the foundations of their model of the West. Krupp's guns arm marvellous conceit. This was more es- the Taku Forts, and have taken the pecially obvious along the coast and place of gingalls, matchlocks, and partiwherever treaty ports brought the mer- zans, or bows and arrows. Armour-plated cantile classes of the West and East in steam frigates and gunboats, built in their constant relation with each other. Even own dockyards, now guard their coast, the coolie — away from the ports — the and are navigated in some cases exclutype of the lower classes, who occasionally sively by their own people, after a course encountered foreigners speaking Chinese, of European instruction. Drilled regiwas involuntarily led to regard them as ments armed with breechloaders and belonging to a higher order than the tra- Chassepôts are rapidly increasing in numditional · Kueli-tze” or “Pan-Kwei” of ber. These are the first-fruits of the lesson the old Canton days; so that although they received on the last occasion when from long habit he could not shape his they measured their strength with ours. mouth to call them by any other name, he Let us not deceive ourselves. They, was yet compelled to add an honorific like us, know better now than then. title corresponding, with “excellency:” They are seeking to master the secret of And however absurd it may have sound- our superiority in war, and possess themed in the ears of the cultured foreigner selves of it for future use. to be addressed as “ His Excellency the The Japanese have run very nearly the Devil," the combination of epithets was same course, but far more blindly' and significant and strongly illustrative of a: impulsively, and at railway speed. We doubt whether they run as safely; and of there is nothing to fear as to the result; one thing we are quite certain, that when and shaft, wire, and rail, will all be at the Chinese take to railroads and tele- work no long time after. The recognigraphic lines it will not be by foreign tion of the equality of other Powers will loans or at foreign instigation, but be- be followed at no distant period by the cause they desire them for their own use, appreciation of other than mere Confuand feel they can manage both to con- cian ideas and forces. Of course this struct and to work them without inter- change will not work marvels all at once. ference. The Emperor of China is not The ju-i, or sceptre of China, is not the yet born who would give a Baron Reuter rod of Aaron, and will not blossom in a such a firman as the Shah of Persia has night. But it will release a combination conceded. The Mikado or Tenno of of forces now held bound and inactive. Japan, in his eagerness to be possessed And in the body politic, hands will work of all European civilization, and to clear and minds think that are now cramped ten centuries at a bound, might possibly and stagnant. Hitherto in the higher be tempted; but even that we doubt. regions of Chinese policy an enlightened We cannot help thinking, therefore, that fear of consequences has been in conflict
, the supporters of a scheme recently an- in all foreign questions, with an ignorant nounced for making the young Emperor conservatism ever looking back to the of China a present of a locomotive and a past for inspiration and safety. We may few miles of rail, with a view to tempt now hope also to see the end of the sohim and his counsellors to embrace the called “co-operative policy;" words promoters and immediately span his which formed a good text for the Ameriempire with iron roads, are labouring can “stump," but, in point of fact, were under a delusion as to the chances of designed by one party, with foreign inultimate success. There is something terests, to keep China from progressing; thoroughly unpractical in “ the idea of and by another, to keep British influence the English people sending spontaneously from extending and predominating. The a magnificent present from a specially French and the Americans, the Russians subscribed fund,” and that it would and the Germans, were always very cocome with peculiar freshness to the Chi-operative whenever either of these ends nese, and would probably result in the could be advanced. More like Constandevelopment of a kindly feeling between tinople every day, there is good reason the two countries, the result of which to believe that Peking is a place where no powers of calculation could meas- the Chinese Government gets many hints, ure. We frankly confess our powers and a “collective note" does not necesin this direction are totally inadequate sarily indicate a common policy on the to realize either the “ peculiar fresh- part of the signataries. It is not the ness of the Chinese feelings on re- interest of all parties to see China proceiving such an instalment of the rail- gress, and it is certainly not the wish of roads of the future, or the result in kindly all that England should exercise influence feeling between the two countries. The in the country. Being already jealous of more probable conclusion to which a the predominance given to it by its share Chinese official would come on seeing of commerce - amounting to more than the expense and trouble taken by so three-fourths of the whole collective many foreigners would be one much more trade of China with foreign countries – complimentary to their pockets than their other Powers, who have little trade to intellect. He would see in so much lose, never act cordially with us. They effort an overmastering desire to profit know pretty well by this time that Eng. by the first introduction of railroads, and land has no design on China, and only a proportionate eagerness to hasten the wishes to see her people happy and prosperiod.
perous, though it may be too much to Although we cannot look with any expect they will implicitly believe this. hopefulness upon such enterprises to There is an unknown future in China yet, hasten the pace of the Chinese, and even and it is easy to understand that rival doubt the desirability of success, we are Powers may each desire to keep the field not the less satisfied that, now the au- clear for whatever action may best suit dience question no longer stops the way, their own interests or policy as circumthe Chinese court and authorities gener- stances may arise. The sooner we really will open their eyes to many things cover our freedom of action, therefore, they have hitherto been determined notand pursue an independent and unfetto see. We are equally assured, that tered course, the better the true interest once they do look facts fairly in the face, 1 of both nations will be served.